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Full text of "Pulpits, lecterns, [and] organs in English churches"

Pulpits, JUeetcpns 

arid Organs 



J. CHARLES COX 




F. H. C. 



Dartmouth 



Pulpits, Lecterns, &. Organs 
in English Churches 



BY 

J/CHARLES COX, LL.D., F.S.A. 

Author of "Churches of Derbyshire" (4 vols.), "Churches of Cambridgeshire," 
"Churches of Cornwall," "Churches of Cumberland and Westmorland," 
"Churches of the Isle of Wight," "Churches of Nottinghamshire," "How to 
Write the History of a Parish," "Churchwardens' Accounts," "Parish Registers," 
"Church Furniture," "Royal Forests of England," "Sanctuaries," etc. 






WITH 155 ILLUSTRATIONS 




520154 



HUMPHREY MILFORD 
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

London, New York, Toronto, Melbourne, and Bombay 

1915 



PRINTED AT 

THE DARIEN PRESS 

EDINBURGH 



These pages are dedicated to 

The Rev. Dr GEE 

Master of University College, and Professor of 
Church History in the University of Durham 

as a small token of the author's friendship, 

and of his keen appreciation of the scholarly 

services that he has rendered to the cause of 

English Church History 






Vll 



PREFACE 



ALTHOUGH the name of the writer of the letterpress of 
this book is the only one that appears on the title-page and 
cover, he is by no means sure that the name of Mr Francis Bond, 
the General Editor of the series, ought not to have been 
bracketed with it, as to him these pages are indebted for 
all the labour and scholarly insight involved in the selection 
and arrangement of the vast number of choice illustrations 
of pulpits, lecterns, organ cases, and other consonant details 
within the covers ; moreover, the letterpress also is indebted 
to his arrangement, advice, and corrections. 

The writer had long wished to produce a monograph on 
pulpits, and the suggestion that the subject should form one 
of the Oxford University Press' noteworthy series of books 
on the Church Art of English Churches was eagerly welcomed 
by him. Up to the present time, the only work on this essential 
branch of English ecclesiology has been Mr Dollman's 
Examples of Ancient Pulpits published in 1849, an d long ago 
out of print. The pulpit of mediaeval days was evidently intended 
to take an unmistakably prominent part among the fittings of 
a church, for the best of sculpture and carving was usually 
employed in its construction, as is vividly demonstrated in 
the following pages ; moreover, bright colouring was not 
infrequently employed, both in stone and wood examples, to 
make the pulpits still more distinctive. 

There are few subjects upon which mistakes are more 
common, even amongst those who have some knowledge of 
Church lore, than those of preaching and pulpits. It is to 
be hoped that this book may do something to correct several 
popular delusions. The bounden duty of preaching was insisted 
upon with constant reiteration by the mediaeval Church, and was 
by no means a special appanage of the Reformation period. 
The Anglo-Saxon priest, from the seventh century onwards, 
was bound to preach at least every Sunday and Saint's day. 
Upwards of one hundred and fifty sermons assigned to the 
Venerable Bede, and certainly of the eighth century, are extant. 
These sermons are almost entirely concerned with the gospel 
of the day, as they were usually preached at High Mass. As 
time went on, the extant sermons of the mediaeval Church 
increase vastly in number, and their special and invariable 



Vlii PREFACE 

characteristic is the thorough and almost intuitive knowledge 
of the whole of the Scriptures shown by the writer. It is not 
too much to say that if an ancient sermon be compared with 
the average pulpit discourse of modern days, the Bible is cited 
fully ten times oftener in the sermon of former times. Insistence 
on preaching and directions as to the scope of sermons were 
persisted in by English synods or by other episcopal injunctions 
right up to the dawn of the Reformation. Moreover, the 
frequent and largely circulated religious manuals of the 
fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries enjoined on the laity the 
importance of preaching, making it a matter of greater moment 
to listen to a sermon than even to hear Mass. 

Abundant consecutive evidence is also here adduced to 
upset the foolish but often held notion that sermons were 
usually preached in Latin and not in the vernacular. The fact 
is that, so far as England is concerned, Latin sermons were 
reserved for the learned, and that for every Latin sermon, at 
least one hundred were preached in the vulgar tongue. 

With the Reformation came about a most remarkable 
cessation or reduction of preaching. Sermons became such a 
rarity that the term " Sermon Bell " was currently applied to a 
special bell which informed the parishioners when a sermon was 
about to be delivered. In the days of Edward VI. there were 
very few licensed preachers ; eight sermons were to be preached 
annually in every parish church, but four of these were to attack 
the Papacy or to defend the Royal Supremacy. It was still 
worse in the following reign. So much alarm was felt lest the 
sermon should exalt Geneva on the one hand, or Rome on the 
other, that the Elizabethan Injunctions of 1559 provided that 
four sermons were to be preached during the year, and that 
homilies were to be read on the other Sundays. Preachers' 
licences were most sparingly granted. An Elizabethan clergy 
list of the whole of the diocese of Lichfield towards the end of 
the queen's reign enumerates 433 beneficed clergy, whilst out of 
this number only 81 or less than a fifth were licensed to 
preach. There can, indeed, be no doubt that there was far 
less preaching during Elizabeth's long reign than during any 
other reign from the Conqueror down to the present time. 

Another very common notion, namely, that mediaeval pulpits 
were of quite exceptional occurrence, the sermon being generally 
delivered from the altar or chancel steps, is hopelessly wrong. 
Such an idea is completely disproved by the numerous instances 
in which churchwardens' accounts of pre-Reformation date are 
yet extant. In no one case, so far as the writer knows, are 
the mention of repairs to pulpits or the purchase of new ones 
absent. A recent writer of repute has had the effrontery to 
adduce, in support of the alleged rarity of pulpits, that " pulpits 



PREFACE ix 

in the inventories of Church Goods, temp. Edward VI., are never 
catalogued." True, but the same is the case with altars, fonts, 
and screens. Moreover, the reports of certain of these Church 
Goods Commissioners actually bear witness to the universality 
of pulpits. The Surrey Commissioners, for instance, state that 
"certaine lynen for the furniture of the communion table, the 
fourmes and pulpits were necessarily left in every parish churche 
of every hundredth within the countie of Surrey." 

Pulpits, in these pages, are followed up county by county in 
alphabetical order under three headings, namely, mediaeval 
examples of both stone and wood, and post-Reformation 
instances up to about the year 1700. In the last of these 
divisions all are of oak, with the exception of Dinder, Yaxley, 
Swarby, and Fordington. 

The stone pulpits of pre-Reformation date yet extant number 
upwards of sixty ; they are chiefly to be found in the counties 
of Somerset, Gloucester, and Devon. Mediaeval pulpits of wood 
remain in about one hundred of our parish churches ; but this 
number includes several cases wherein old panelling has been 
used in their repair or reconstruction. They are chiefly of 
the fifteenth century, but in six cases these wooden pulpits 
undoubtedly pertain to the fourteenth century. 

As to good examples of post-Reformation date, they are 
far more numerous ; they abound in certain counties, such 
as Northants and Notts., but several northern shires are almost 
destitute of late Tudor or Stuart instances. An endeavour 
is made here to differentiate between Jacobean and Carolean 
examples. It is somewhat absurd to style every kind of wood- 
work Jacobean long after the death of James. The Carolean 
(Charles I.) pulpits in various counties are superior both in 
number and beauty of design to those of the first James. The 
true admirer and reverent student of our old parish churches 
has long since ceased to limit his appreciation to Gothic 
details. He realises that all that is good of its kind in the 
work of painstaking craftsmen is well worthy of attention. 
When complete, the pulpit, tester, and pedestal in these late 
Elizabethan, Jacobean, or Carolean compositions often form 
an imposing ensemble. But ignorant restorers have not infre- 
quently marred the whole effect by the removal of the canopy 
or sounding-board. Other parsons or would-be architects 
deliberately mar the effect of an old post-Reformation pulpit 
by placing it on a white stone base ; while in fully a score 
of cases with which the writer, in the course of a long life, 
is well acquainted, beautiful and cunningly wrought late pulpits 
have been ruthlessly ejected altogether from the church. It 
is hoped that these pages may do something to add to their 
greater appreciation. 
b 



X PREFACE 

To the long account of pulpits, a briefer one follows, which is 
well illustrated, dealing with the kindred subject of hour glasses. 

The interesting subject of ancient lecterns is treated after 
a much fuller fashion than has hitherto prevailed, and is enriched 
by numerous illustrations. Brass eagles are carefully discussed. 
A recently published Ecclesiastical Dictionary has stated that 
the old brass eagles in English churches are " nearly a score in 
number." But in these pages the number is shown to be at 
least forty-six. Eagles of wood, as well as lectern desks of 
both brass and wood, are also treated for the first time as 
distinct subjects, and efforts have been made to make their 
enumeration as complete as possible. 

Reading desks of late origin, gospel desks in the chancel 
wall, and desks for chained books also receive attention, while a 
few concluding pages deal with the few examples of handsome 
old organ cases still surviving, though none of them unfor- 
tunately are of mediaeval date. 

Though a good deal of care has been expended in the 
endeavour to make this book both comprehensive and accurate, 
the author's long experience both as a writer and a reviewer 
causes him to fear that a perfect book has never yet been 
published, and he will be grateful to those who will point 
out sins either of omission or commission. 

His best thanks are due to several friends who have assisted 
him, both clerical and lay, but as they have all been thanked 
personally or by letter, no list of them need be here given. 
One exception must, however, be made, for he owes so much 
to the continuous help received from his old friend, the 
Rev. R. M. Serjeantson, the rector of St Peter's, Northampton. 

For photographs and drawings, acknowledgments are due 
to Mr M. B. Adams, F.R.I. B.A, Dr F. J. Allen, Mr A. W. 
Anderson, A.R.I. B.A., Mr Thomas Baddeley, Mr W. H. Barrell, 
Mr A. Bedding, Dr G. Granville Buckley, Dr P. B. Burroughs, 
Mr F. H. Crossley, Mr W. Davidson, Mr W. Marriott Dodson, 
Mr G. C. Druce, Mr J. F. East, Mr William Francis, Miss A. E. 
Gimmingham, Mr T. M. Grose-Lloyd, Mr J. F. Hamilton, 
Mr F. T. S. Houghton, Mr P. M. Johnston, F.S.A., Mr J. T. Lee, 
Messrs Levy, Mr W. Maitland, Rev. Walter Marshall, Mr C. F. 
Nunneley, Rev. H. B. Pirn, Professor S. H. Reynolds, Rev. G. W. 
Saunders, Mr C. B. Shuttleworth, Rev. F. Sumner, Mr F. R. P. 
Sumner, Rev. F. H. Sutton, Mr Syers-Cuming, Mr F. R. Taylor, 
Mr G. H. Tyndall, Mr J. C. Wall, Mr G. H. Widdows, A.R.I.B.A., 
Mr W. Percival-Wiseman, Miss Carrie Percival-Wiseman, and 
Mr E. W. M. Wonnacott, F.S.I. ; reproductions of the above 
are distinguished by the initials of the owner of the photograph 
or drawing. J. C. C. 

LONGTOX AVENUE, SYDENHAM, 
January 1915. 



XI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAP. PAGE 

I. PREACHING AND PULPITS i 

II. THE PULPIT PROPER 28 

III. MEDIAEVAL STONE PULPITS 36 

IV. MEDIEVAL WOODEN PULPITS 52 
V. POST-REFORMATION PREACHING 82 

VI. POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 89 

VII. HOUR GLASSES - 147 

VIII. LECTERNS AND EAGLES OF BRASS AND STONE AND 

GOSPEL DESKS - 163 

IX. LECTERNS AND EAGLES OF WOOD 182 

X. READING DESKS - 197 

XL DESKS FOR CHAINED BOOKS - 200 

XII. ORGANS AND ORGAN CASES 204 

INDEX LOCORUM - 217 

INDEX RERUM - - - - - 226 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



CHAPTER I 
PREACHING AND PULPITS 

THE first historical mention of a pulpit occurs in the Book of 
Books, for when Ezra began his mission of reform at Jerusalem, 
B.C. 458, he "stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had 
made for the purpose, in the sight of all the people, for he was 
above all the people." This passage at once supplies the object 
of a pulpit, namely, an elevated structure to enable the preacher 
to be seen and heard by the congregation. Ezra's pulpit on 
this occasion, however, was not in harmony with our usual 
conception of such a structure, unless it is the one of modern 
erection in the great church of Yarmouth, for it was of sufficient 
size to accommodate six attendants on his right hand, and seven 
on his left. It is said that this stately precedent of Ezra's was 
to some extent followed in the earlier mediaeval days in cathedral 
churches, for when the bishop preached it was customary for 
him to be accompanied into the pulpit by his two archdeacons. 

It is a complete mistake to imagine that preaching was 
neglected in the mediaeval Church, or that sermons were in the 
main a product of Reformation days. The exact contrary is 
the case, as will presently appear. Oral teaching was by no 
means confined to missionary labours among the heathen, but 
was the habitual practice of the Church for the maintenance 
of the faith, and for the instruction of the faithful from the earliest 
days. Much may be gleaned on the subject from the Fathers. 
So far as our own country is concerned, the incidental evidence 
of the regular custom of preaching in their churches by the 
Anglo-Saxon priests during the seventh and following centuries 



2 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

is abundantly convincing. The reforming canons of King 
Edgar (959-975) provide that the clergy were to preach every 
Sunday, but this had been the general practice for three 
centuries. 

In 1223 the Synod of Oxford exhorted the clergy to 
" preach the Word of God, and not to be dumb dogs, but with 
salutary bark to drive away the disease of spiritual wolves from 
the flock." Grosseteste, the famous Bishop of Lincoln (1235- 
54), not only directed the clergy of his huge diocese to preach 
regularly on Sundays, but he drew up headings of sermons for 
them. This great bishop, soon after his consecration, went 
the round of his various archdeaconries, summoning the clergy 
of each deanery to meet him at a certain church and date, and 
the people also were warned to attend, that their children might 
be confirmed, and that they might hear the Word of God and 
make their confessions. On such occasions, the bishop leaves it 
on record that " I myself was accustomed to preach the Word of 
God to the clergy, and some Friar, either Preacher or Minorite, 
to the people." Somewhat later in this century, Bishop Quivil 
of Exeter (1280-92) drew up homilies for the use of his clergy, 
and ordered, under a penalty, that every parish should possess 
a copy. From about this date onwards, when most of our 
diocesan episcopal registers begin, official references to preach- 
ing became frequent. It was in 1281 that Archbishop Peckham 
put forth his injunctions directing the clergy to expound in the 
vulgar tongue four times in a year, the Fourteen Articles of 
Faith with regard to the Holy Trinity and Christ's Humanity, 
the Ten Commandments, the Two Evangelical Precepts of 
love to God and man, the Seven Works of Mercy, the Seven 
Capital Sins, the Seven Virtues, and the Seven Sacraments. It 
is quite incorrect to imagine that this order meant that there 
were to be but four sermons in the vernacular each year. In 
1408 no ordinary secular or religious priest was allowed to 
preach without the licence of his diocesan ; but the four orders 
of Friars were authorised to preach in the churchyard, and 
indeed of common right anywhere. The perpetual curate, how- 
ever, that is to say the rector, vicar, or licensed incumbent, 
preached by virtue of his office ; temporary chaplains (or as 
we should now say "curates") were restricted to the topics 
of the 1281 injunctions. 

Before we come to the question of the place where sermons 
or discourses were delivered within churches, it may be well to 
offer a few words so as to remove a common misapprehension. 
In the inimitable Chronicle of Joceline de Brakelond it is 
recorded under the year 1187, that Abbot Samson, of Bury St 






PREACHING AND PULPITS 




F. S. 



Coleridge, Devon 



4 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

Edmunds, was wont to preach to the people in the nave of the 
great conventual church, from a pulpit which he had caused to 
be made for that purpose, and that he preached to them not 
only in the English tongue, but even in the East Anglian dialect 
(Anglice, sed secundum linguam Norfolckie). The point of this 
story is, of course, in this great abbot condescending to use the 
terms of provincial pronunciation best known to his hearers ; 
just as if one of our present-day gifted scholar-preachers were to 
use, in a local church, broad Derbyshire or Exmoor " Zummerzet." 
But the incident is usually cited to show how extremely rare 
was any preaching in the vernacular ! In reality it means 
nothing of the kind. In all probability for every sermon 
preached in Latin throughout England for about a thousand 
years before the Reformation, at least one hundred were 
preached in English. Latin was the language both spoken and 
written by scholars throughout Western Christendom during 
mediaeval days ; it was a most useful medium of intercom- 
munication, common to all the European nations, in fact a sort 
of learned Esperanto after which we are now vainly yearning. 
There were, too, infinitely strong reasons for its initial adoption 
as the shrine of a faith wherein the deepest of holy truths were 
crystallised, reasons which were sound enough in the infancy of 
coming languages, but have long since lost their efficacy. 
Naturally enough, from being the receptacle of the inmost 
conceptions of the Divine Liturgy, the Latin tongue became 
the essential medium of expressing the teaching both in doctrine 
and morals of the Crucified, and Latin sermons, when they came 
to be written, or still later when they came to be printed, were 
the result. 

Now and again, when the literates or learned were gathered 
together, sermons were preached in Latin, as they still are before 
the Convocation of the Church of England. But no one can 
possibly believe that, when St Augustine and his band of the 
Roman mission landed on our shores, or when St Aidan came 
down from the North, they addressed our pagan forefathers 
in Latin. If so, for all the consequent result, they might just 
as well have croaked like frogs! Nowadays, if a man is moved 
to become a missionary in such a district, say as Central Africa, 
the very first thing he does in a practical direction is to set to 
work to learn one or more of the languages of the inhabitants, 
and the preaching in the native tongue when the rude churches 
are built, as converts are made, will still for a long time be his 
chief duty and perchance difficulty. It was the same in the 
sixth century as it is in the twentieth. 

When Grosseteste, in his decanal visitation, preached to the 



PREACHING AND PULPITS 




Winchester Cathedral 



6 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

assembled clergy, the language was probably Latin, but when 
one of the friars addressed the people does anyone believe that 
that tongue was used? It is known from the much later Act 
Books of our English mediaeval prelates that they or their 
commissaries were in the habit of preaching in the Chapter 
House to the inmates of the monasteries at the time of their 
formal visitation. Occasionally the episcopal scribe set down 
in the register the actual text taken from the Vulgate, which 
the bishop used when preaching to the religious of a particular 
house. Thus Bishop Oulton of Winchester (1333-43), when 
visiting the great Benedictine nunnery of Nunminster, on 
9th April 1334, took for his text Deo per oinnia placentes, and 
when visiting the nuns of Romsey Abbey he preached from 
Qui parati erant^ intraverant cinn eo ad nuptias. The same 
bishop, when visiting the Austin canons of Christ Church, 
addressed them, at a later date, from Ascendente Jesu in navi- 
culam, secuti sunt emu discipuli ejus, and when at South wick 
Priory his text from the gospel was Est puer mine hie qui habet 
quinque panes hordaceos et duo pisces. 

It is, however, by no means improbable that even when 
the good bishop was thus addressing the religious, he preached 
to them in either English or possibly in Norman-French. There 
is good ground for believing that inability to understand 
colloquial Latin, or even to master the construction or exact 
sense of the very canon of the Mass, was by no means unknown 
amongst the ordinary priesthood, whilst this ignorance was 
still more marked amongst the women of even the vowed 
religious. This may be illustrated by two true stories taken from 
old mediaeval registers, the one sad and the other entertaining. 

When William de Wenda succeeded to the dignity of dean 
of the new foundation at Salisbury in 1220, he at once pro- 
ceeded to make a searching visitation of the parishes on the 
prebendal estates which pertained to the Dean and Chapter. 
Certain of the outcomings of this tour were deplorable, and 
loudly called for reformanda. Among the defaults then exposed 
was the ignorance of certain of the clergy, all of whom were 
called before the dean to be examined as to their orders and 
learning. Among them was one Simon, chaplain of a dependent 
chapel of Sonning, Berks., who had been four years in priest's 
orders. The dean examined him in the gospel for the first 
Sunday in Advent, when it was found that he did not under- 
stand what he read. He was then tested in the opening of the 
canon of the Mass, Te igitur clementissime Pater rogamus, etc. 
He had no idea in what case Te was, nor by what it was 
governed. Requested by the dean to look more closely at the 



PREACHING AND PULPITS 




Shepton Mallet, Somerset 



8 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

words, the chaplain gravely suggested that Te was governed by 
Pater, because the Father governed all things ! nor could he 
state the case, or decline the word dementissime, or explain 
the meaning of cleutens. This was doubtless quite an excep- 
tional case, but the result of this visitation was the suspension 
of several other chaplain priests for almost equal ignorance of 
the Latin that they used. 1 

The other story is about a century later, and has been taken 
direct from the voluminous Act Books of the energetic Bishop 
of Lichfield, Roger de Norbury, who ruled over the diocese from 
1322 to 1358. In the course of a general visitation, soon after 
his consecration, the bishop paid an official visit to the small 
Benedictine nunnery of Fairwell, which was only a mile or two 
from his cathedral city. The priory was surrounded by woods, 
and was within the limits of the royal forest of Cannock. 
Among the reformanda issued as the result of this visit, the 
prioress was warned not to keep any hounds (canes venatici). 
Three years later the bishop again visited this house, and was 
surprised to find certain hunting dogs still kennelled within 
the precincts of the priory. On remonstrating at this disobedi- 
ence, the lady superior coolly told his lordship that, after his 
previous visit, the convent had received a document from 
Lichfield, but, as they could not read Latin, they did not know 
what it was all about. As a practical reply, the long-suffering 
bishop, on his return to Lichfield, sent the prioress another 
copy of his injunctions in Norman-French. 

It may also be remembered that Giraldus Cambrensis, when 
speaking of the ignorance of some of the clergy, tells the story 
of a preacher who described the Canaanitish woman as partly 
a dog and partly a woman, believing that her name was derived 
from cam's, a dog ! 

The oldest set of sermons preached in England, now extant, 
are those assigned to the Venerable Bede, who flourished 
between 672 and 735. They are a proof of the early establish- 
ment of the custom of preaching on all Sundays and Saints' 
days. They number twenty-two for Lent, forty-seven in the 
course of the Church's year, forty-eight on Saints' days, and 
some twenty very short ones, evidently uttered to country con- 
gregations. Nearly all the sermons, as was customary for 
many centuries the sermon being delivered at High Mass- 
were expositions of the gospel for the day. Critics are doubt- 
ful if all those which appear in the earlier editions are rightly 
assigned to Bede, but at all events they are all of the age of 

1 Viet. Co. Hist, of Berks., ii. 5-7. 



PREACHING AND PULPITS 




P. B. B. 



Banwell, Somerset 






IO PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

Bede. It is obvious, on consulting them, that the short popular 
discourses are so slipshod in style, that they must have been 
taken down by some admirer or pupil of the preacher. They 
are all in Latin, but it is simply impossible that they were 
delivered in that tongue, for Latin was in England of those 
days just as much a dead language as it is at the present time. 

With regard to the vast mass of mediaeval sermons it may 
be said, contrary probably to the general belief, that they have 
one common characteristic, namely, the immense and almost 
intuitive knowledge of Scripture which their writers possessed. 
"If anyone, to take the lowest view of the subject, will be at 
the trouble of comparing the number of references to be found 
in a modern with those which occur in an ancient sermon, he 
will find that ten to one is by no means an exaggerated 
estimate of their relative proportions. Nor is this all. Modern 
quotations are almost entirely taken from certain books 
or chapters of the Bible ; the more important portions, as men 
nowadays irreverently, not to say profanely, call them. The 
ancient preachers drew their citations from all parts of Scripture 
alike ; equally imbued with the spirit of all, it was impossible 
that they should quote otherwise than according to analogy. 1 

It is not, however, a matter of guess-work or deduction to 
assert that Bede used the vulgar tongue when instructing our 
forefathers in the rudiments or mysteries of the faith. The 
great preacher himself, in a letter to Egbert, lays down the 
principle that it is best to preach in Latin to those who could 
grasp its meaning, but that those who only understand their 
mother tongue were to be addressed in the vernacular (sua lingua] ; 
doubtless the early preaching in the vulgar tongue would be in 
the main extemporary, for the niceties of expression could 
scarcely be rendered in a barbarous and unformed language. 
The taking down a sermon during delivery, in writing by an 
official notary, or by a private admirer of the preacher, was a 
recognised habit of the Church three centuries before the days of 
Bede. Gregory Nazienzen, who died in 389, in his valedictory 
discourse, says: "Farewell, ye lovers of my sermons ; farewell, 
ye pens, both public and private." 

Students of the Councils of the Church, whether general, 
continental, or insular, are well aware of the continued insistence 
of the bishops upon the importance of frequent preaching 
and the use of the vernacular. But as popular ideas in the 
opposite direction are so deeply ingrained, it may be well to cite 
one or two striking early instances. The twenty-fourth Canon 

1 Neale's Mediaeval Preaching (1856), xxv, 



PREACHING AND PULPITS 



II 




F H C. 



Bovey Tracey, Devon 



12 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

of the Council of Carthage, held in 398, enjoins that all persons 
leaving the church during sermon time shall be excommunicated. 
The English Council of Cloveshoe of 747, orders priests to learn 
to construe and expound the Our Father, the Creed, and all the 
solemn parts of the Mass and Holy Baptism in the vulgar tongue. 
The Council of Aries, of the year 813, insists on sermons on all 
Sundays and festivals, not only in city churches, but in those of 
country parishes ; whilst the Council of Mayence, of the same 
year, lays special stress on preaching in the vernacular. 

As the Anglo-Saxon language became more formulated, 
some of our great prelates and preachers did not hesitate to 
write out their religious instructions in that language. Thus 
^Elfric the Grammarian, Archbishop of Canterbury from 995 to 
1005, left behind him eighty Anglo-Saxon homilies. Amongst 
others who in this particular followed his example were /Elfric, 
Archbishop of York from 1023-51, and Wulfstan, Bishop of 
Worcester, who died in 1023. 

The laity, too, appear to have been distinctly attached to 
preaching, and to the length and frequency of sermons both 
in the earlier and later mediaeval days, a liking which is usually 
attributed solely to Puritans or those of post-Reformation days. 
From various incidental references that we have gleaned upon 
this point, we are content to cite two. The late Prebendary 
Randolph cites one instance at Colyton, Devon, where the 
questmen, at a visitation of Bishop Stapleton (1308-26), 
complained of the rarity and brevity of their vicar's preaching. 
" It was not of the quality they complained, for after all it was 
his best, and he was a good man, but he stinted quantity, nor 
would he admit the preaching friars to eke out his insufficiency 
as his predecessors had done." 1 Two centuries later the laity 
of Durham must have shown a strong devotion to sermons ; 
for the Rites of Durham tell us that the monks were wont 
to preach every Sunday afternoon from one o'clock to three 
in the Galilee chapel at the west end of the great cathedral 
church ; for their own sake, we cannot help hoping that this was 
done by a system of relays. 

The grammar-school masters of Oxford, in the first half 
of the fourteenth century, were instructed to insist on their 
scholars talking either in Latin or French, as Mr A. F. Leach 
reminds us. This illustrates a striking passage in Higden's 
Polychronicon, written in 1327, wherein he says that the corrup- 
tion of the English language of his day, of which he complains, 
" comes chiefly from two things, viz., that boys in school, contrary 

1 Neiuberry House Magazine, Feb. 1890. 



PREACHING AND PULPITS 




Pilton, Devon 



14 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

to the custom of all other nations, since the first coming of 
the Normans, abandoning their own tongue, are compelled 
to converse in French ; and also that noblemen's sons from 
their very cradles are taught the French idiom ; and that 
countrymen wishing to be like them, that so they may appear 
more respectable, endeavour to Frenchify themselves with all 
their might." 

Archbishop Peckham, as visitor of Merton in 1271 "seeing 
that the clerks of England for the most part stutter and stammer 
in talking Latin," ordered that the grammar pupils should be 
obliged to talk in Latin, and that certain specified Latin works 
should be procured and chained on a desk for their study. 

It may perhaps be as well, in this opening section, to bring 
the matter of preaching and of preaching in the vulgar tongue 
to the later days of the mediaeval period, and even to the eve of 
the Reformation. To avoid discursiveness this had better be 
done by the citation of one or two pertinent facts illustrative of 
many more that might be adduced. 

The Acts of a Synod, held by Bishop Langham at Ely. in 
1 364, order every parish priest to preach frequently, and to ex- 
pound the Ten Commandments, etc, in English, or as the 
original has it, in idiomate communi. 

It is recorded of Edmund Lacy, when he was installed 
Bishop of Exeter on Mid-Lent Sunday, 1472, that he gave a 
great feast, and on the morrow visited the church, and preached a 
good sermon in Latin in the Chapter House. On the following 
Wednesday, being the Annunciation, he preached in English 
in the pulpit before all the choir and the people of the city of 
Exeter. 1 

In 1447, William Plympton, a Dominican friar, was licensed 
to preach at Otford, Kent, on a special occasion, in viilgari, by 
the prior and convent of Canterbury when the see was vacant. 2 

In 1486, Prior William Sellyng, on behalf of himself and 
the convent of Christ Church, Canterbury, sede vacante, granted 
a licence to Thomas Goldstone, authorising him to preach, 
latine vel vulgari, clero et populo, in all lawful places within the 
province of Canterbury. 3 

The witness, too, during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 
of the numerous manuals issued to help the clergy in carrying 
out the injunction of 1281 as to definite instruction in the 
vernacular in the main tenets of the Christian faith, is not a 
little remarkable, and points to the reality of the teaching 

1 Hist. MSS. Com., Var. Coll., iv. 46. 

2 Hist. MSS. Com. Rept., v. 430. 

3 Hist. MSS. Com. Refit., v. 430. 



PREACHING AND PULPITS 




Harberton, Devon 



1 6 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

and preaching in many a parish. The invention of printing 
towards the close of the latter century made the multiplication 
of such manuals a comparatively easy matter; the printing of 
Archbishop Peckham's Constitution was at once undertaken, as 
well as several glosses upon it. In 1466 a synod of the province 
of York, under Archbishop Neville, not only insisted upon the 
observance of these essentially definite instructions, but set out, 
at considerable length, the method in which the parish priests 
had best use this work, so as to improve the lives of those com- 
mitted to their charge. 

It is impossible to exaggerate the force of language used in 
these manuals respecting the value of preaching and instruction, 
not only as to the bounden duty of the priest to be a faithful 
expounder of the Word of God, but as to the faithful attendance 
of the laity at such ministration. Neglect of sermon-hearing was 
made a question of conscience in preparing for Confession, as 
manuscript as well as printed sources plainly prove, and this 
some years before the separation from Rome. 1 

Richard Whitford, the Monk of Zion, in his popular Work 
for Householders, first published in 1330, after instructing the 
householder how to bring up the young and those under him, to 
be devout at the Sunday Mass, with their eyes on their books 
and beads, goes on to estimate the sermon even higher than the 
Mass. " If there be a sermon any time of the day let them be 
present, all that are not occupied in needful or lawful business ; 
all other occupations laid aside, let them ever keep the preachings 
rather than the Mass, if, perchance, they may not hear both." 
Other manuals, at least a dozen, express themselves with equal 
definiteness on the danger of neglecting or despising oral in- 
structions and sermons, among which may be mentioned The 
Myrrour of the Church, Exornatorium Curatoriurti, and The 
Interpretatyon and Sygnyfycacyon of tJie Masse, printed in 1532. 
Probably only one other quotation is necessary to drive home 
the literal truth of this present contention. It shall be taken 
from Dives et Pauper, which appears to have been by far the 
most popular book of religious instruction in England, first 
brought out in the middle of the fifteenth century. 

The author of this tractate, in addition to other strong 
passages of a like nature, writes thus : " As St Anselm saith 
God's Word ought to be worshipped as much as Christ's Body, 
and he sins as much who hindereth God's Word or taketh it 
recklessly, as he that despiseth God's Body, or through his negli- 
gence letteth it fall to the ground. ... It is more profitable to 

1 Harl. MSS,, B. Mus. 172, f. 12, and 115, fif. 51, 53. 



PREACHING AND PULPITS 




T. B. 



Mellor, Derbyshire 



1 8 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

hear God's Word in preaching than to hear a Mass, and that a 
man should rather forbear his Mass than his sermon. For, by 
preaching, folks are stirred to contrition, to forsake sin and the 
fiend, and to love God and goodness, and by it they may be 
illumined to know their God, and virtue from vice, truth from 
falsehood, or to forsake errors and heresies. By the Mass they 
are not so, for if they come to Mass in sin they go away in sin. 
Nevertheless the Mass profiteth them that are in grace to get 
grace and forgiveness of sin. . . . Both are good, but the 
preaching of God's Word ought to be more discharged and 
more to be desired than the hearing of Mass." 1 

Bishop Veysey, on /th September 1536, wrote a severe letter 
of reprimand to the President and Chapter of Exeter, asking if 
it was possibly true that there was no canon present to preach 
either on the Feast of the Assumption or on the following Sunday, 
and that they had not even provided a substitute preacher. He 
insisted on the canons fulfilling their duty as preachers. In 
February 1538 the bishop acknowledged a letter from the 
Chapter sending their preachers' names from Septuagesima until 
Good Friday, and recommending the preachers to make use of 
the new treatise called the Institution of a Christian Man? 
" late consevyd by a greate number as ye know of the most 
famous clerks of this realm, wherein ye shall finde mater 
sufficient to preach of, on especiall in the articles of our 
Faythe, the seven Sacraments, the petitions of our Pater Noster 
and Ave, and of the Ten Commandementes." 3 

SECONDARY USE OF THE PULPIT 

In addition to the use of the pulpit in the English mediaeval 
Church for the general delivery of the instruction or the sermon, 
and particularly of the exposition of the gospel which followed 
the reading or singing of it at the High Mass, there were several 
particular uses of it which ought here to be enumerated. The 
most important of these was the reading of the Bede Roll. 

The Bede Roll or the Bidding of Bedes was of two kinds, 
the general and particular, though as a rule the latter was 
preceded by the former and delivered from the pulpit every 
Sunday, and usually on the chief festivals. The Bidding Prayer 
took its name from the priest bidding the people pray for all 

1 On the subject of such manuals, several of a far earlier date than those 
cited, see Cutts' Parish Priests and their People^ chaps, xiv., xv. 

2 First published in May 1537, by the King's authority, but usually called 
The Bishops' Book. 

3 Hist. MSS. Com., Var. Coll., iv. 8, 59. 



PREACHING AND PULPITS 




F. H. C. 



Nantwich, Cheshire 



20 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

sorts and conditions of men, mentioning the pope, the metro- 
politan, the bishop, the parish priests "having care of mannes 
soule," and including in the temporality the king and queen, 
etc., corresponding in most respects to the prayer for the Church 
Militant in our modern Prayer Book. Then the priest specially 
commended to the people's prayers, either for their souls or their 
good estate, all particular benefactors "that have honoured the 
church wyth light, lamp, vestment, or bell, or any ornaments by 
the whyche the service of Almighty God is the better main- 
tained and kept." The spirit of this is still maintained in the 
remembrance of past benefactors in the Bidding Prayer before 
University and other special sermons. 

For the due reciting of the Bede Roll, it was customary for 
the parish priest to receive an annual gratuity, which also 
included the registering of new names on the parchment roll. 
The usual fee in this respect at St Edmund's, Salisbury, where 
the wardens' accounts begin in 1464, was 45. per annum. The 
following long entry occurs under 1499-1500 in this parish : 

"Giftes for names to be put in the bede roll in this yere. It. 
received of the gift of Robert South Gent at the namys of hym Alys 
his wiffe their faders and their moders be set in the bede rolle of 
the seide Churche of Seynt Edmunde that the pepulle then beying 
present may pray for the Sowlys Amongiste all Crystyn every Son day 
when the parishe preste rehersithe tham then in all 405. Of the gyft 
of Stephyn Walwyn, and Katerine his wif a vestment for the pryst 
of Crymson Velvet with alle thapparelle at their namys be put in the 
same bede rolle for like cause." 

The accounts clerk for 1500-1501 duly entered the heading 
Nomina in le bede rolle hoc A registrata, but he had to add, 
NuWquia nemo hoc A nno desideravit. 

The payment for the Bede Roll in the Somerset parish of 
Tintinhull was very trifling for 1477-78. 

" For the beclrowyll to the prest at iiij times xijd." 

There are various entries under this head in the accounts 
of St Mary-at-Hill, London city : 

1477-79. To the parish preste to Remember in the pulpite the 
sowl of Richard Eliot which gave to the Churche 
works vjs. viiid. - ijd. 

1489-90. To Mr John Redy, parish priest, for rehersing of the 

bede roll viijd. 

1490-91. To Mr John Redy for the Rehersing of the names of 
Founders of the chauntryes in the bede roll for a 
hole yer at Michelmas - xvjd. 

1498 99. For making of a tabyll for the beyd Roll ijd. 

1529-42. To Mr Alen for the Bede Rowle of the Church - ijs. 



PREACHING AND PULPITS 



21 






22 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

Occasionally the definite mention of benefactors went back 
a long way. Thus the Bede Roll of St Michael's, Cornhill, ran 
thus, early in the sixteenth century : 

"Ye must pray for Richard Atfield, sometime parish parson of this 
church, for he with the consent of the Bishop ordained and established 
Mattins, High Mass, and Evensong to be sung daily in the year 1375." 

In addition to sermons, instructions, and Bede Rolls, the 
mediaeval pulpit was made the vehicle, when the public press 
was unknown, of giving forth of all kinds of authoritative 
announcements of an ecclesiastical, semi-ecclesiastical, or purely 
civil character. The three several declarations of the banns of 
marriage were read from the pulpit, and notices of coming 
feasts and fasts declared. The Council of Oxford ordered that 
parish priests were to warn people from their pulpits of the duty 
of bringing their children to confirmation ; some time previous 
to this Bishop Wykeham instructed them to give notice of this 
when warning them of a coming episcopal visitation. 

Another matter of fairly common occurrence was the publi- 
cation from the same place of a grant of spiritual favour from 
the bishop, usually in the form of an indulgence, to all who 
should help on a specified good work, usually of an ecclesiastical, 
but sometimes of a secular character. The Lichfield episcopal 
registers open with that of Bishop Walter Langton (1296-1323). 
Among his earliest acts was assistance offered to John Percy, 
who was collecting money for the repair or rebuilding of an 
important bridge at Colwich. The bishop requested all parish 
priests to explain the matter from their pulpits, to show that it 
was a work of charity, and to say that all who contributed in 
any way should have forty days of indulgence. A like 
assistance was granted to bridge-building by several of his 
successors in the same diocese, notably by Bishop Bolars (1453- 
59), when the bridges of Wolsey, Packington, Weston-on-Trent, 
Yoxall, Oreton, and Aston were thus aided. Reverting for a 
moment to another subject, it may be remarked that this bishop, 
in 1455, offered a forty days' indulgence to every one who would 
listen to the sermons of a canon of Haughmond Abbey, who was 
to preach throughout the diocese in either Latin or English. 
But the majority of such indulgences, whilst a minority gave 
relief to individuals in personal distress, were to encourage sub- 
scriptions to architectural repairs from the greatest to the 
humblest. Bishop Walter Langton, at another time, ordered 
all parish priests to publish, " at the time of their sermons and 
exhortations," his indulgence to all who would visit the cathedral 
church of Lichfield, and contribute to the building of the spires. 



PREACHING AND PULPITS 





24 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

Space would not permit enumerating a tenth of the subjects 
in connection with which pulpit utterances or announcements, 
many of a litigious character, were associated. But in one 
important national point, successive kings and their councils 
largely availed themselves of the pulpits of the Established 
Church. Bishop Trellick of Hereford's register (1322-62) affords 
examples of the way in which the clergy were directed by the 
Crown, through their bishops, to give notice of striking events 
from their pulpits, arid to invite prayers to excite the fears or 
the patriotism of the populace. Within a short period of Edward 
III.'s reign, Bishop Trellick had to forward instructions to his 
clergy as to the line they were to take with regard to the dread felt 
before the battle of Crecy, the reports of a treacherous attack on 
Calais, the alarm as to the presence of the Spanish fleet before 
the battle of Winchester, and the crowning glory of Poictiers. 

Nowhere was the alarm greater, as the awful Black Death 
of 1348-49 approached England, than in the sea-girt district 
of Hampshire. Bishop Edington of Winchester made every 
possible spiritual preparation against its ravages, using most 
exceptional and pathetic language in his instructions. One of 
his directions is not a little singular. Some turbulent folk in 
the city of Winchester resisted Church services at the burial of 
some of the victims. The bishop would not permit burial in 
unconsecrated ground, but he enlarged graveyards and con- 
secrated new ones. Further, he ordered the Prior of Winchester 
and the Abbot of Hyde to cause sermons to be preached on the 
Resurrection of the Body, fearing that in those grievous times 
there might be some open repudiation of the Church's faith. 

The great Bishop Wykeham's orderly register abounds in 
directions for special prayers for particular events, mostly issued 
in response to a privy seal from the Crown ; they are so 
numerous that a mere recitation of them would cover several 
pages. The point here to be made is that on various occasions 
he ordered the attention of the faithful to be roused by sermons 
as well as by Masses and processions. Perhaps the most note- 
worthy was that sent forth by Wykeham on 3Oth May 1375, 
after the defeat off Rochelle, which he described as " a time of 
shame and suffering such as England had never known." l 

The mediaeval Church was by no means free from occasional 
brawls in church, wherein the pulpit played a part. The small 
church of Mellor, in North Derbyshire, possesses the most 
remarkable of old oak pulpits in England, and there is a curious 
story about the chapel and this very piece of furniture (17). 

1 See Viet. Co. Hist, of Hants, ii. 42-4. 



PREACHING AND PULPITS 





26 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

Among Sir George O. Wombwell's MSS., at Newburgh 
Priory, are various papers relative to prolonged lawsuits between 
Robert Pilkington and John Ainsworth, in 1496-98, as to the 
ejection of some tenants on the ground of wood trespass. 
Amongst them is a memorandum as to the felling of a large 
number of valuable trees in Mellor township by " Sir Perys Legh 
Knyght," including " an aspe (aspen) to make arrowys of won the 
fayrest that tyme in all Derbyschyre." This was done on Thursday 
in Whitsun week, 1498, and "on the Sunday afore midsumer day 
the Knight sent his servant to Mellur chapel, & causyd the prest 
to say in pylpyd after the prayers . . . that the said Knyght was 
holle aggreyed with the partese for the said trees that he had fallen 
in Mellur," and protested that he had done no wrong to Robert 
Pilkington. " Then the said Robert herd tell of this sclaundur & 
saying in Mellur chapel aforesaid & was sore asstoynd & grevyd 
there with & come to the same chapell ye Sonday next after 
saynt Peter day then next ensewyng, & when the prest had 
bedyn the pryers in the pylpyt the said Robert stole up in the 
chaunsell & speke on loude that all the pepull myght here hym 
& prayed them all to bere hym recorde anothere tyme what his 
saynges was at that tyme." Pilkington then proceeded to set 
forth at length his version of the tree felling ; but with the strife 
itself we have here no further concern. 



PREACHING AND PULPITS 










J. C. W. 



St Peter, Wolverhampton 



28 



CHAPTER II 
THE PULPIT PROPER 

IN mediaeval days the word pulpitum was usually applied, but 
by no means invariably, to the substantial screen shutting off the 
nave in monastic, minster, and collegiate churches from the choir. 
From this elevation there is evidence that occasionally the sermon 
was delivered. It gradually came to be used to signify the 
panelled erection, with a book-desk or lectern, at the west side 
of the screen, from which the sermon was delivered. The 
ambon from the Greek word to mount, because it was 
ascended by steps, and usually termed ambo because there 
were generally two was the elevated stand or tribunal from 
which the gospel was read, or if there were two, the gospel and 
the epistle. The position varied, but, for the most part, the 
gospel ambon was on the north side, and the epistle ambon 
on the south. St Christopher, St Ambrose, and St Augustine 
were in the habit of preaching from the ambon. The ambo 
ritual seems never to have had an exact place in the English 
Church ; the nearest approach to it is the fine stone pulpit 
example at Nantwich, which is, as it were, a south ambon 
combined with and projecting from the low stone screen that 
protects the chancel (19). 

We know, also, that early preachers, especially in small 
churches, sometimes used the altar steps, and more frequently 
the chancel steps, as is still the case in many English churches 
at missions and less formal occasions. It need not be supposed, 
because of the absence of pulpits of either the twelfth or thir- 
teenth centuries, that there was therefore any dearth of preach- 
ing during that period. Viollet le Due was of opinion, judging 
from pictures in old MSS., that the pulpits of those days were 
light movable constructions of wood, which were very likely to 
perish or be destroyed when more imposing and fixed pulpits 
came into fashion. The same is true of England : even as 
late as the days of Archbishop Arundel of Canterbury, 1396- 
1414, that prelate is represented as preaching from a movable 



THE PULPIT PROPER 



2 9 





30 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

wooden pulpit. 1 Such pulpits were in early days kept in the 
Chapter Houses of St Augustine, Canterbury, and of Bury St 
Edmunds, and brought out when required. There used to be 
one at Norwich Cathedral, and they still exist at Hereford 
Cathedral, and at King's College chapel, Cambridge. Within 
living memory there was one at Granchester, Cambridgeshire. 2 

Nor must outdoor pulpits be forgotten. They used to be 
associated with the cathedrals of Norwich, Worcester, and 
London, the last-named being the famous " Paul's Cross." There 
is a celebrated one in the outer court of Magdalen College, 
Oxford,^. 1480, from which the University Sermon was formerly 
preached on St John Baptist's Day ; the example of the 
Dominicans at Hereford is canopied (21). Among the many 
instances which occur abroad, those at Vitre, St Lo, Brittany, 
Laon, Strasburg, and Perugia may be mentioned ; from the last 
of these St Bernardino used to preach. 3 

Fixed pulpits were usually constructed of wood, and not 
infrequently of stone. The extant mediaeval examples in both 
these materials are fully dealt with in subsequent chapters. A 
third material, still in use on the Continent, is metal. There is 
an old iron pulpit at the cathedral of Bruges, and Street, in his 
Gothic Architecture in Spain, tells us of several later examples. 
The Rites of Durham tells us that there was an iron pulpit in 
the Galilee : 

" Adjoining unto the lower part of the great window in the west 
end of the Galilee was a fair iron pulpit, with bars of iron for one to 
hold them by, going up the steps unto the pulpit, where one of the 
monks did come every holy day and Sunday to preach, at one o'clock in 
the afternoon." 

The position of the pulpit varied greatly, and would-be 
learned wiseacres have often moved mediaeval examples to 
place them in the "correct" position. But the student of 
pulpits knows full well that there was no correct position. 
Generally they stood on one side or the other of the chancel 
screen, but were occasionally attached to a pier on either side of 
the nave. There is no necessity for imagining that our fore- 
fathers treated the pulpit position as a matter of caprice ; they 

1 HarL MSS., 1319 ; reproduced in Strutt's Antiquities (1793), p. 45. 

2 The present writer has several times preached from a movable pulpit 
at Helmsley, N.R. Yorks., placed occasionally in the nave during Lent, etc., 
as the regular pulpit is so far off from most of the seats. 

3 Of recent years several open-air pulpits have been constructed, as at 
St James's, Piccadilly, and St Mary's, Whitechapel. 



THE PULPIT PROPER 





32 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

were probably guided by common sense applicable to the time 
of their erection, taking, for instance, into account the interference 
of chantry enclosures with a general congregation. It is some- 
times said that the proper place for the pulpit was on the south 
side, because that was the more honourable side, being the side 
of the men ; but there is rather more to be said for the north, 
for that was usually the gospel side. As a matter of fact, when 
the original position has been maintained, or can be traced, the 
English pulpit more often stood on the north side, though in 
no very marked degree. In Dollman's treatise on old English 
pulpits, twenty-two are described and illustrated, some of stone, 
and some of wood ; of these, sixteen are on the north side, and 
six on the south. 1 

The mediaeval pulpit was clearly intended to be a centre of 
attraction, for the best of sculpture and of carving was often 
employed in its construction. Moreover, vivid colouring was 
frequently used in both stone and wood examples, many traces 
of which have been found, and though usually removed, the 
original colour has sometimes been retained or somewhat 
renewed. Of stone colouring, Cheddar maintains the most 
striking instance ; of wood, the Norfolk examples of Burnham 
Norton and Burlingham St Andrew may be mentioned, together 
with those of Southwold, Suffolk, and Burford, Oxon. (23). 

The ascent to a pulpit and its height from the floor level 
used to be a matter of importance, and was obviously dictated 
by the size and plan of the fabric. In the great majority of 
cases, crude restorations have destroyed or neglected these old 
levels, and have frequently committed the absurdity of placing 
mediaeval pulpits of wood on clumsy stone bases. A war has 
been specially waged on old steps or stairways. There is just 
one old stone pulpit stairway left of singularly fine treatment, 
namely that of St Peter's, Wolverhampton (27). In a few cases 
wall stairways, like those to refectory pulpits, occur in parish 
churches ; e.g., at Chipping Sudbury, Gloucestershire, and at 
Holton, Nailsea, and Weston-in-Gordano, Somerset (29). 

Occasionally, too, as at Staunton and Cold Ashton, 
Gloucestershire, an opening from the rood-loft stairs served 
as access to the pulpit (29). At Walpole St Andrew, Norfolk, 
there is the quite exceptional feature of a wide stone bracket 
projecting over the lower doorway of the rood-loft, which in all 
probability used to support a wooden pulpit ; the panel over the 

1 The only printed work on old English pulpits is that by T. T. Dollman, 
entitled Examples of Ancient Pulpits (1849) ; a second series was projected, 
but never issued. 



THE PULPIT PROPER 33 

bracket is now blocked up, but it used to open from the stair- 
case (21). 

The old wooden stairs or steps for mounting pulpits have 
almost entirely perished or been destroyed. We only know of 
a single instance where the original ornamental steps remain, 
namely, at East Hagbourne, Berks. (31). These oak pulpits, 
usually of octagonal or hexagonal plan, with panelled sides, are 
for the most part supported by slender shafts or stems, but occa- 
sionally the bases are continued after the plan of the pulpit 
proper, as at Lutterworth, or in the later instance at St Ives, 
Cornwall (51). Now and again the panelling is continued right 
down from the cornice to the base, as at Hannington, Northants, 
or Affpuddle, Dorset (67). 

At Wendens Ambo, Essex, and in the south pulpit of 
Worstead, 1 Norfolk, the buttresses between the panels are 
continued downwards, as plain squared parts to raise the pulpit 
some short distance above the floor level (34, 31). 

The prevalent notion that medieval pulpits were exceptional 
in English churches is completely disproved by a study of parish 
accounts. Almost all those of pre-Reformation date contain 
entries relative to repairs of pulpits, often of quite a trivial 
character, at the cost of a few pence. The following are some 
entries, selected from many others, of a large expenditure in the 
same direction : 

1458 {Arlington, Sussex). Et ijs. iiijd. ob. p' faciend' de la 

pulpitte. 
1478-80 (St Margaret, Westminster). For a pulpite in the Chirche 

Yerde agenst the preching of Doctour Penkey ijs. viijd. 
1447-48 ( Yatton, Somerset). Vor the makyng of the pulpyt iijs. iiijd. 
1503-04 (St Mary-at-Hill}. To John bull for hys labyr for 

makkyng the pulppet ixs. viijd. 

To hys man for xiij dayys wark to the sam - xiiijs. iiijd. 

For Nayllys to the sam pulppet ijd. 

[Other items for fixing it 25. 7^d.] 
1517-18. Resc' of M r Doctor for the olde pulpet that stode in 

the chirch vs. 

More than one writer, who ought to have known better, in 
his attempt to show that pulpits and preachments were flowers 
of Reformation growth, has brought forward with triumph the 

1 At Worstead there are two mediaeval pulpits, north and south of the 
chancel entrance, with similar beautifully traceried panels, an interesting 
reminiscence of the ambo. But during an ill-considered restoration the 
one to the north was much " improved," and raised considerably on a stone 
pedestal. 

5 



34 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 





THE PULPIT PROPER 35 

argument that pulpits are never catalogued in the inventories 
of Church Goods temp. Edward VI. True, but neither are altars, 
fonts, or screens ! Moreover the reports of some of these Church 
Goods Commissioners, who superintended the pillage and 
stripping of the parish churches, actually bear witness to the 
universality of pulpits. For instance, the Surrey Commissioners 
report that "certain lynen for the furniture of the Communion 
table, the fourmes and pulpitts were necessarily left in every 
parish churche of every hundredth within the countie of Surrey." 



CHAPTER III 
MEDIEVAL STONE PULPITS 

THERE are upwards of sixty stone pulpits of pre-Reformation 
date throughout the parish churches of England. They are 
chiefly to be found in the counties of Somerset, Gloucester, and 
Devon. In one or two instances these stone pulpits are of the 
close of the fourteenth century, but otherwise they are almost 
entirely of fifteenth-century date. 

These stone pulpits are usually of some fine grained, easily 
worked white stone such as Painswick or Bath, which was 
readily procurable in the shires just mentioned. In the follow- 
ing lists they are set forth in county order. 

Mention, however, should first be made of a few earlier 
examples of thirteenth-century stone pulpits to be found in 
connection with the conventual buildings of religious houses. 

From quite early days it was the custom for the Scripture or 
some sacred book to be read aloud during meal time in monastic 
refectories. For the convenience of the reader, and to secure a 
better hearing for his voice, it was usual for a pulpit to be 
constructed at some little height in the thickness of the walls, to 
which access was gained by a stairway. Good instances of these 
readers' pulpits remain in the refectories of the abbeys of 
Beaulieu and Shrewsbury, and in those attached to the cathedral 
cloisters of Carlisle and Chester. 1 The best of these is at Beaulieu, 
where the great refectory of the monks stands in good condition 
on the south side of the cloister garth. The building is a fine 
example of advanced Early English, c. 1250. The pulpit is a 
beautiful piece of work in the centre of the west side. It is 
entered by a wall stairway with an open arcade and groined roof. 
The actual pulpit is supported by a semi-octagonal stone corbel 
richly carved with foliated work. The specially interesting point 
about this readers' pulpit is that it is still in use for the delivery 
of sermons, for the whole of the refectory building was 
appropriated some time ago to be the parish church of Beaulieu. 

1 C. 1270. Fully illustrated in Dollman's Pulpits. 



MEDIEVAL STONE PULPITS 



37 




F. S. 



Dittisham, Devon 



38 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

It can therefore claim to be the only example of a church pulpit 
of Early English design left in England. 

BERKSHIRE. From Mr Brabant's recent Little Guide (191 1), 
we much regret to learn that the curious small stone pulpit 
projecting from the wall in the south transept of Childrey church, 
which was approached by a doorway from behind, has of late 
years been cleared away. 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE has several interesting and striking pulpits. 
There is one of stone at Witcham ; it is massive and of early 
Perpendicular date, c. 1420. The original stone steps were 
recently disclosed. 

CHESHIRE possesses a single very fine example of a stone 
pulpit at Nantwich ; it is attached to the north-east pier of the 
tower, and is approached from the nave, and is of Late Decorated 
character, and distinct beauty. It is enriched with panelling 
and tracery, and is slightly embattled round the upper part. 
When Sir Stephen Glynne was here, about 1840, he describes 
the pulpit as " unhappily disused, and half concealed," but it has 
since undergone a small amount of careful restoration (19). 

CORNWALL possesses two late mediaeval pulpits of stone. The 
thirteenth-century pulpit of Egloshayle is formed of Caen stone ; 
the panels are carved with emblems of the Passion, but it has 
unfortunately been not a little spoilt by heedless enlargement 
at the time of restoration, in 1867. There is another of like 
date and material, which now stands meaningless and unused, 
in the south choir aisle of the modern church of St Paul, Truro, 
which was built in 1848. This pulpit is of octagonal plan, and 
stands on an octagonal panelled stone. Each panel is sculptured 
with a repeated design, apparently a monstrance. It used to 
stand on the north side of the nave, but was disastrously removed 
during a restoration of I884. 1 

It is somewhat surprising to find that the county of DEVON 
so justly celebrated for the beautiful woodwork of its old 

1 There is some degree of mystery attached to this pulpit. It was pro- 
nounced to be medieval when carefully examined in 1909 by the writer, in 
company with two experienced archaeologists, and again in 191 1. The vicar, 
who has been there since 1897, knew nothing about it, and other local 
antiquaries were puzzled as to its date. A drawing of it appears in English 
Church Furniture, p. 123. In March 1913, Mr Mitchell Whitley, a former 
Honorary Secretary of the Royal Institute of Cornwall, wrote to me saying 
that the pulpit was an 1848 gift by Mr William Tweedy of Alverton, Truro, 
and is supposed by some to be modern. Further inquiries produce a story 
of its having been recovered out of a wreck from Normandy, with other 
somewhat wild particulars. 



MEDIEVAL STONE PULPITS 



39 





40 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

churches, possesses several late mediaeval stone pulpits, some 
of which are elaborately sculptured. Its ten examples are of 
octagonal plan, with one exception. South Molton appears 
to be the oldest, c. 1450. It is beautifully carved throughout, and 
stands on a well-panelled stem and has statuettes of apostles 
under canopied, niches. When first seen by the writer in the 
sixties of last century much original painting remained, of which 
some traces are still extant. Bovey Tracey pulpit is not much 
later in date, and is still more elaborately treated ; the panels 
are sculptured into two tiers of small canopied saints, representing 
St Peter, St Paul, St Andrew, St James, St Margaret, St George, 
and the Four Evangelists ; the whole is richly coloured and 
gilt, being carefully restored about 1887 (i i). The stone pulpit of 
Paignton is somewhat more clumsily sculptured ; there is a row 
of quatrefoils below each of the panels ; the central panel bears 
the Rood, with small figures of the Blessed Virgin and St John 
on brackets at either side ; the other mutilated figures are 
perhaps intended for the Evangelists. Totnes has a stone 
octagonal pulpit of simple design ; the six divisions (one side is 
fixed against the pier, and another forms the entrance) are each 
divided into two tiers of panels with cinquefoil heads. When 
described and illustrated (PL xv.) by Dollman, he remarked : 
" Modern wisdom has thought fit to paint and grain the pulpit 
in imitation of oak." It is known that the adjacent stone screen 
was erected by the Corporation in 1559-60, and this is probably 
the date of the pulpit, though Dollman considered it to be c. 1 500. 
The remarkable stone pulpit of Dartmouth is peculiar in several 
respects ; it is of exceptional design, being heptagonal in plan ; 
the coarse size of the foliage in the upper part and on the 
pilasters between the panels is anything but effective ; the small 
leaf work round the top, and the ornaments round each of the 
crocketed niches, are of wood, and were placed here in the 
Laudian days of Charles I., the initials C. R. being in one of the 
panels. These ornaments represent respectively the portcullis, 
lion, rose, thistle, fleur-de-lis, and harp,and are each surmounted by 
a crown. 1 The sculpture of the pulpit is c. 1530 (Frontispiece). 
Pilton has a well-carved stone pulpit ; each panel has double 
niches and a row of quatrefoils below ; it is c. 1450 ; there is a 
Jacobean canopy affixed to the piers above (13). 

Witheridge has a fine stone pulpit richly carved ; the squared 
panels have crocketed canopies over small figures ; one of these 
is the Rood, with St Mary and St John. The stone pulpit of 
Chittlehampton is very similar, and almost as good ; it must 

1 See Dollman, PI. xxvii. 



MEDIEVAL STONE PULPITS 





,!=> 
00 



42 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

have come from the same craftsman's hands. Harberton is one 
of the richest sculptured stone pulpits in the county, though the 
foliage is coarse (15). Swimbridge is another rich example, with 
figures of the Evangelists in the niches. Dittisham has a 
chalice-shaped pulpit of late Perpendicular design, with statuettes 
beneath canopies (37). 

DORSET possesses a remarkable example of an old stone 
pulpit at Frampton-on-the-Frome. The present church was 
built about 1460-70, in the days of Edward IV., and the pulpit 
is coeval. It is of octagonal plan. 1 The panels have crocketed 
ogee canopies, and three of them retain figures beneath them, 
two of which are usually ignorantly described as " monks." The 
knotted cords show clearly that they are intended for friars. In 
the centre is a friar holding a monstrance in his right hand and 
a book in his left, intended for the great Franciscan, St Bona- 
venture ; on the one side is another friar with a long-stemmed 
cross in his right hand and a book in his left, probably intended 
for another Franciscan, St Peter of Alcantara ; on the other side 
is the Blessed Virgin (the church is dedicated to St Mary), with 
two figures, male and female, kneeling before her, which were 
probably intended for the donors of the pulpit. 

Another old stone pulpit in this county, at Okeford 
Fitzpaine, met with an unparalleled adventure. A muddle- 
headed rector, about one hundred and twenty years ago, took it 
into his head to remove the upper part, and to change it into a 
font ! Common sense and decorum came to the rescue in 1865, 
when it reverted to its original use. 

Here, too, it may be mentioned that the stone pulpit of 
Fordington is dated 1592, the only known instance of an 
Elizabethan pulpit in that material. 

It is not surprising to find that GLOUCESTERSHIRE possesses 
a considerable number of old stone pulpits, for right through the 
Cotswold range and its offshoots there is a continuous run of 
oolite limestone near to the surface and easily worked. The 
cruciform church of Staunton, near Coleford, of late Norman 
foundation, shows that the chancel was widened, and rood-stairs 
inserted in the angle to the north-west of the chancel arch during 
the fifteenth century. The stone stairway, which gave access 
to the rood-loft, and above that to the belfry, was also so con- 
structed that it served as an entrance to the simple corbel-shaped 
stone pulpit shown in the illustration (29). The magnificent 
church of Cirencester has a remarkable and graceful stone pulpit 
affixed to a north pier of the nave at the entrance to the chancel. 

1 See Dollman, PI. xvi 



MEDI/EVAL STONE PULPITS 



43 





44 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

Its five richly crocketed compartments are perforated, thus 
giving a singular lightness to the whole. When Dollman, 
who dates it c. 1450, wrote about it in 1849, it was obscured 
by " an unsightly mass of masonry " which had been added at 
the top, and formed the then existing pulpit, but this disfigure- 
ment has long ago been removed (39). 

At North Cerney there is a delightful and interesting stone 
pulpit now standing in the north transept. When Dollman 
wrote about it (PL xi.) seventy-five years ago, this pulpit was 
affixed to the north jamb of the chancel arch. The graceful 
stem (now replaced) had been removed owing to its supposed 
insecurity ; happily, however, it had not been destroyed, but 
was resting in a corner of the chancel. Dollman is approxi- 
mately right in assigning to it the date c. 1460. The details of 
the five compartments are exceedingly good. The most remark- 
able features are the two flowing bands of the lily ornament the 
one under the cornice and the other at the base which have a 
striking resemblance to the like ornament which is of frequent 
occurrence at Magdalen College, Oxford. A third stone pulpit 
of this county is also figured by Dollman (PL xiii.), which 
occurs in the large late parish church of Winchcombe. This 
church was begun to be built in 1490. The octagonal pulpit 
is of plain panelled design with an embattled top. 

Other fifteenth-century designs are extant at Ampney 
Crucis, St Briavels, Chedworth, Chipping Sudbury, Coin Rogers, 
Cowley, Elmstone, Hawkesbury, Naunton, Northleach, and 
Thornbury. The best of these are the richly crocketed example 
at Chedworth, the larger one at Northleach, and the later 
instance at Ampney Crucis. 

HAMPSHIRE, including the Isle of Wight, possesses two 
mediaeval stone pulpits and the remains of a third, but of no 
special merit. The stone pulpit of East Meon is of fifteenth- 
century style. The pulpit of the interesting church of Shor- 
well (Isle of Wight) is of stone, and quite obviously of the 
same date as the fifteenth-century (c. 1440) north arcade of 
the nave ; the pier immediately behind it is built in two sections, 
with a space between for the entrance steps to the pulpit from 
the aisle. To this pulpit was added a good Jacobean canopy, 
dated 1620; it corresponds in style with the pyramidal font- 
cover ; both were probably the gifts of Sir John Leigh (41). 

Mr Percy Stone, in his noble volumes on the Architectural 
Antiquities of the Isle of Wight, pointed out that in the rectory 
garden of Chale lies a carved block of stone, which in 1845 stood 
in the church against the north wall of the nave, evidently 
forming at one time the corbelling of a stone pulpit similar to 



MEDIAEVAL STONE PULPITS 



45 





46 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

the one at Shorvvell. It is somewhat highly ornamented with 
panel work, and belongs to the latter part of the fifteenth century. 

OXFORDSHIRE has two examples of mediaeval pulpits of stone, 
in addition to the external pulpit of Magdalen College, to which 
allusion has already been made, namely, in the parish churches 
of Coombe and Black Bourton. Coombe church was begun to be 
rebuilt on a higher site in the year 1395 ; the pulpit appears to 
be of that period it is of hexagonal plan and the panels have 
rich crocketed moulding, and the cornice is embattled. Black 
Bourton has good panels of Perpendicular tracery, c. I45O. 1 

The county of SOMERSET can boast of at least a score of late 
mediaeval stone pulpits. Shepton Mallet, both from its beauty 
and its date, deserves to be mentioned first. Mr Hutton, in his 
recently issued Highways and Byways of this county, does right 
in describing it as " very lovely." Its unique design, sculptured 
with a number of niches with crocketed canopies covering 
alternate designs of fruit and foliage, rising from an octagonal 
band of quatrefoils, can best be studied from Dr Allen's excellent 
photograph. The date appears to be c. 1460, or at all events of 
the third quarter of the fifteenth century (7). About the same 
date is the handsome octagonal pulpit of Loxton, with each 
of its divisions divided into two traceried panels beneath an 
ogee crocketed canopy ; it rests upon a corbel in the form of a 
man (43). 

In the north-west of the county, within a circle of some ten 
or twelve miles of Ban well, as Mr Dollman points out, there are 
many churches where the stone pulpits are almost similar in 
design and execution, and date about 1480. He instances those 
of Banwell, Compton Bishop, Kewstoke, Worle, Wick St 
Lawrence, Brockley, Hutton, Locking, and Loxton ; but he 
only gives plates of Banwell (PI. xxii., xxiii.). All of these are 
elaborate examples of good Perpendicular stonework, and of 
octagonal plan. The five which are almost identical with 
Banwell, and must have been executed by the same craftsman, 
are those of Bleadon, Compton Bishop, Hutton, Locking, and 
Wick St Lawrence. In each of these six instances the panels 
are divided into two-light blind windows, with a quatrefoil head 
and carved spandrels on either side ; immediately above is a 
band of quatrefoil, whilst the cornice is of two members, the one a 
curious kind of four-leafed ornament, and the other a more usual 
leaf terminal. Immediately below is a well-executed vine and 

1 The stone pulpit of St Peter in the East, Oxford, has been more than 
once described as mediaeval, but it was designed by Mr Jackson, R.A., in 
1882. 



MEDIEVAL STONE PULPITS 



47 




G. fi. 15. 



Worcester Cathedral 



48 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

grape trail, exactly like what is usually found in screen woodwork 
of this period. Worle pulpit has the lower vine and grape trail, 
but lacks the upper quatrefoil band. The fine pulpit of Locking 
is of the same general character, but in this instance the grape 
and vine trail forms the cornice, with the quatrefoil band 
immediately below it. The brightly coloured fine pulpit of 
Cheddar differs much in design, as will be seen from the illustra- 
tion ; above the slender octagonal stem or shaft are eight shields 
bearing demi-angels, supporting, as it were, the spring of the 
pulpit (9, 43, 45, 43, 45). 

The stone pulpits of Nailsea and of St Benedict, Glastonbury, 
are plainer Perpendicular examples, c. 1 500 ; they are both 
figured by Dollman (PI. xiv., xviii.). 

Other old stone pulpits in Somerset can be found at 
Charlecombe (massive), Kingsbury Episcopi, Meare (very fine), 
Stogumber (five-sided), and Wrington. 

The pulpit of Wells Cathedral is due to Bishop Knight 

(1541-47). 

STAFFORDSHIRE has only one mediaeval pulpit, but the one 
that it possesses is the most notable stone example throughout the 
kingdom. This elaborately enriched pulpit, sometimes falsely 
stated to be constructed out of a single huge block of stone, is 
attached to the pier nearest to east on the south side of the nave 
of the great church of St Peter, Wolverhampton. 1 It is of the 
same date as the central tower and the font, c. 1475. The plan is 
octagonal, and it includes the panelled enclosure of the stairs, 
twelve in number, on the west side. Across the coping at the 
foot of the staircase is the large seated figure of a somewhat 
grotesque lion with a speaking countenance. Each face is 
divided into two panels, having cinquefoiled crested heads. 
Below them, at the crown of the shafted pedestal, is a boldly 
sculptured vine trail. Above them are quatrefoils with cinque- 
foil central flowers ; immediately under the cornice is a foliage 
trail of ivy-like leaves and small cinquefoil flowers (27). 2 

SUSSEX retains two stone mediaeval pulpits, both of late 
fourteenth-century date, at Arundel and Climping ; the former 
is of much grace and has a good stone canopy (21). 

1 Dollman, PL xix., xx. 

2 Preaching from this pulpit one Lent evening in the eighties, when it 
was the use to bring the choir-boys into the nave nearly facing the pulpit, 
I noticed a youthful pair of choristers, as my sermon drew to a close, leaning 
forward and staring most earnestly at the lion on the stairway below me. 
On subsequent inquiry I was told that it was the custom of the senior 
choristers to "green" the novices by assuring them that the lion opened its 
mouth and yawned if the preacher exceeded half-an-hour ! 



MEDIEVAL STONE PULPITS 



49 




F. H. C. 



Halberton, Devon 



50 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

WARWICKSHIRE. Attached to the south-east pier of the 
central tower of Holy Trinity, Coventry, is the singularly fine 
stone pulpit, c. 1470. Up to 1833, when restored by Rickman, it 
had been hidden from sight by certain obtrusive woodwork, 
including the clerk's seat. The lower part is boldly corbelled 
out, and the junction of the octagon with the pier shafts is 
well managed, but the upper open-panelled part is rather too 
definitely cut off from the lower by the battlemented cornice. 1 

In the church of Brough there is a stone pulpit dated 1624; 
but this date must denote repair or reconstruction ; the lower 
part is at least a century older. 

WILTSHIRE has two examples of stone pulpits, both of the 
fifteenth century. The stone pulpit of Limpley Stoke is attached 
to an arched recess in the wall, and has only two projecting 
sides of Perpendicular work; when visited in 1905 it had not 
been used for some considerable time. The other stone pulpit 
is at Bewick St James. 

At WORCESTER there was formerly a stone cross in the church- 
>ard, which was a usual preaching place, as at St Paul's, London. 
In 1458 Bishop Carpenter granted to the Prior and Convent 
of Worcester certain premises for the use of the sacrist, who 
was to provide a chaplain to read a public moral lecture from 
the Old or New Testament once or twice a week, and to preach 
in the cathedral or at the cross in the churchyard on Easter 
Eve, and on other special festivals. During the civil wars the 
cross was demolished, and after the Restoration the preaching 
of the city sermons was transferred to the nave. The old stone 
pulpit of fifteenth-century date then stood on the north side of 
the nave against the second pillar from the west. During con- 
siderable alterations in 1748 this pulpit was transferred to its 
present position on the north side of the choir (47). 

The great county of YORK has but one single old pulpit of 
stone extant. It stands in the north transept of Ripon Minster, 
and is of good Perpendicular design ; it is a pentagon with 
richly panelled sides ; there is a base but no stem, and only 
three steps. 

1 Woodhouse's Churches of Coventry (1909), p. 73. 



MEDIEVAL STONE PULPITS 





CHAPTER IV 
MEDIEVAL WOODEN PULPITS 

As will be seen from the following county lists, the pre- 
Reformation pulpits of oak number a hundred, or two-thirds 
more than those of stone. But it must be remembered that 
this total includes about a score of cases in which old panelling 
has been used in the repair or reconstruction of pulpits. Such 
instances chiefly occur in Devon and Cornwall. Norfolk is the 
county which has the greatest number of bona fide mediaeval 
pulpits ; it is followed fairly closely by Devon. The great 
majority of these oak pulpits are fifteenth-century, but in six 
cases the date is unmistakably fourteenth-century. The ones 
of early date occur at Mellor, Derbyshire ; Fulbourn, Cambs. ; 
Upper Winchendon, Bucks. ; Stanton, Gloucestershire; Dummer, 
Hants ; and Hannington, Northants. 

BEDFORDSHIRE has a few pulpits that date from late 
mediaeval days. Hampsford has an effectively carved and well- 
preserved example of a fifteenth-century octagonal pulpit. 
The nature of the tracery work, with double quatrefoils at the 
base of each panel, seems to point to c. 1430. Yeldon is in part 
late fifteenth-century, having traceried heads to the panels. 
Shelton has a late fifteenth or early sixteenth century pulpit. 
The small church of Lower Gravenhurst has a composite pulpit 
made up of some fifteenth-century panels. 

BERKSHIRE. The strikingly handsome church of East 
Hagbourne has a good Perpendicular pulpit, c. 1425 (31). It is of 
pentagonal plan, attached to the south jamb of the chancel arch ; 
the panels have cinquefoiled heads with wide tracery above, 
whilst there is a row of small quatrefoils at the base ; the shallow 
buttresses between the panels have crocketed summits, and there 
is an elaborately carved band below the cornice. The peculiarity 
of this pulpit is the five steps by which it is approached ; they 
have no protecting rail, but between the three posts, by which 
they are supported, are heads of pierced tracery. Aston Tirrold 
also claims to have a Perpendicular pulpit. 1 Finchampstead 

1 Brabant's Little Guide to Berkshire , p. 64. 



MEDI/EVAL WOODEN PULPITS 



53 



has part of a fifteenth-century screen worked up into the pulpit. 
Charney Bassett has a good little pulpit with three panels of 
undoubted Perpendicular tracery, a fifteenth-century moulding 
above and below ; it stands on a small base and is ascended by 
three steps. Mr Brabant says that "some authorities consider 
it Jacobean ! " 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE has some interesting remnants of 




j. F. H. 



Edlesborough, Bucks. 



mediaeval pulpits. At Upper Winchendon there is a half-hexagon 
pulpit carved in three panels out of a single block of oak. The 
tracery on the squared panels, in two stages, is undoubtedly of 
the second quarter of the fourteenth century, c. 1340. The 
upper edge or rim is somewhat rudely embattled, and is destitute 
of any cornice. 

The richly carved oak pulpit of Ibstone forms four sides 
of a hexagon ; on each side are double traceried panels with 



54 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

cinquefoil - headed, ogee - crocketed canopies ; it is of early 
fifteenth-century date, but the top and base are modern. The 
pulpit of Bow Brickhill is also fifteenth-century, but it has been 
considerably restored and repainted ; it is hexagonal in plan, 
and the crocketed heads of the double panels much resemble 
those of Ibstone. The arched opening of the rood-loft stairway 
at the east end of the nave of Chilton church may very possibly 
have led to a pulpit. At Edlesborough there is a much restored 
fifteenth-century pulpit to the north of the chancel arch, of 
"wine-glass shape." The elaborate tabernacled canopy is fourteen 
feet high. 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE has several good mediaeval pulpits of 
wood. Marston has a plain panelled octagonal pulpit on a 
shaft ; it appears to be towards the close of the fourteenth 
century. Elsworth, Fen Ditton, and Hannington are good 
examples of Perpendicular work ; Haslingfield is late in the 
style, c. 1 500. The pentagonal pulpit of Willingham is a 
beautiful piece of work, about the middle of the fifteenth century ; 
the panels are finely carved ; it stands on an octagonal shaft. 
But there are two other pulpits which call for more particular 
description. Landbeach has a striking-looking Perpendicular 
pulpit rising from a graceful corbelled pedestal ; the panels 
have finely carved tracery work with crocketed finials. This 
pulpit is, however, a clever make-up ; the panels came from 
Jesus College chapel, Cambridge. The pulpit of Fulbourn 
retains its long-asserted claim to be the oldest of our wooden 
pulpits, and is probably earlier than the rude one at Mellor, 
Derbyshire. It is most likely immediately prior to the Black 
Death of 1348-49. The plan used to be rather curious, having 
two panels almost level on each side, and three projecting in an 
oriel in front. A mischievous restoration has much spoilt this 
pulpit ; the panels have been taken out, but the curious spandrel 
carvings at the sides of the crocketed heads remain, and also the 
buttresses. The spandrels are all different and delightfully 
natural in treatment, such as a pair of birds and hairbells. 1 

There is a fair abundance of old wooden pulpits, or pulpits con- 
structed of old materials, left in CORNWALL. The pulpit of Bodmin 
was contracted for by the wardens of the rebuilt church in 1491 ; 
it was to follow the pattern of one in the church of Morton 
Hampstead ; its six panels are beautifully carved with crocketed 
and cusped ogee tracery ; the square base is made up of eight 
interesting old panels robbed from different parts of the church 
during a blundering restoration. At Camborne, Laneast, 

1 See plan and two plates in Bury's Eccl. Woodwork (1847). 



MEDIEVAL WOODEN PULPITS 




Kenton, Devon 



56 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

and Launceston St Thomas are plain late fifteenth-century 
pulpits. The early sixteenth-century pulpit of Padstow is 
richly carved with emblems of the Passion. The church of St 
Mary Magdalene, Launceston, which was consecrated in 1524, 
has been ruthlessly stripped of all its old woodwork, with the 
exception of the very richly carved octagonal pulpit. At the 
little church or chapel of St Michael, Porthilly, there is a pulpit, 
c. 1525, with linen-fold panels. The octagonal pulpit of St Ives 
is a remarkable piece of carving, c. 1540, wherein late Gothic 
and Renaissance work are curiously blended (51). 

The grievous mischief done to the beautiful and most 
interesting woodwork of the large majority of Cornish churches 
by the " restorers " of the Victorian age, especially by one architect 
who bore the name of an old family of the duchy, cannot be 
exaggerated. It is, however, some slight mitigation of these 
offences that certain portions of this late mediaeval carving were 
worked up again into pulpits. The pulpit of St Cuby is made 
up of bench-ends and fragments of the old rood-screen. The 
Parochial History of Cornwall (1870) says of St Stephen-in- 
Brannel that, "The pulpit and desk are tastefully panelled with 
a neat carving preserved from the screen and bench-ends." The 
pulpit of St Ruan-Langhorne is formed of late fifteenth-century 
panelling from the backs of old seats. Five bench-ends have been 
worked up into the pulpitof St Gwinear, including a double-necked 
swan on a wreath and a merman. The pulpit of Phillack is partly 
constructed of fragments of a destroyed rood-screen. Old bench- 
ends have also been used in the reconstruction of the pulpits of St 
Cubert, St Sampson, and Jacobstow. The Falmouth church of 
King Charles the Martyr, built in 1662-63, has a pulpit constructed 
of old pieces of carving chiefly brought from the Continent 
about 1860, but including pieces of English screen cornices, 
which had doubtlessly been ejected from certain Cornish 
churches. 

DERBYSHIRE possesses a single mediaeval wooden pulpit. 
It is of a remarkable character and one of the oldest in Chris- 
tendom (17). The ancient pulpit of Mellor is a unique example 
of an ancient pulpit hewn out of a solid block of oak or section 
of a great tree. It is 4 ft. 8| in. high, and 7 ft. 8 in. in diameter 
at the top. The plan is hexagonal, with one side cut out to 
form a narrow entrance. One of the five panels is plain and 
smooth, showing where it stood against the wall, but the other 
four have tracery carved at the top and foliage work at the 
base which assign it to the middle of the fourteenth century ~(c. 
1 3 50-60). The central band has the appearance of being fifteenth- 
century work, but it at one time showed traces of having been 



MEDIEVAL WOODEN PULPITS 



57 




F. H. C. 



Ipplepen, Devon 



58 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

clumsily recut. When I first saw this church as a young man 
the whole building was in a scandalous and filthy state this 
pulpit stood under the tower, and formed the receptacle for the 
grave-diggers' tools, and the sexton said he had leave to chop 
" the old thing up, but it were too hard." Some years later 
leave was granted me to scrub and clean it before it was 
photographed and drawn. It was then found to have remains 
of two coats of paint and gilding, one fourteenth-century, and 
the other late fifteenth. When at last restored to use, it was 
unfortunately repaired with poor, soft wood, and an unsightly 
and unsuitable cornice added at the top. 

At Breadsall a pulpit was of recent years constructed out 
of early sixteenth-century bench-ends ; but it fell a victim, 
with the rest of the church, to the criminal lunacy of militant 
suffragists in June 1914. 

DEVONSHIRE, which shows so much beauty and variety in 
the carving of its rich rood-screens, is also well to the front 
in the woodwork of its fifteenth and early sixteenth century 
pulpits. Halberton claims first notice both in date and in 
perfection of treatment. The different and effective designs of 
the two tiers of recessed panels are shown clearly in the illustra- 
tion (49). This pulpit is obviously coeval with the screen ; they 
are both c. 1420. The painted and gilded pulpit of Tor Bryan 
is also coeval with its screen ; they may both be c. 1420. 
Second only in importance and richness of carving to the famed 
rood-screen of Kenton is the coloured and gilded pulpit, with 
its vine trails in cornice and base. It stands close in front of 
the screen on the north side. Their date is about 1430 ; it is 
quite unnecessary to suppose Flemish treatment in either of 
them. The pulpit, as well as the screen, has painted panels of 
saints. Of this striking piece of church furniture, Mr Baring- 
Gould has a sorry tale to tell : " It was wantonly ejected by 
the architect who 'restored' (1866) the church; but happily 
the greater part of the ornamentation was preserved in a cup- 
board of the school, among dusters, chalk, and slates. Its 
place was supplied by a bit of trumpery machine made carving 
now gone to limbo as it deserved. Happily, of late years, 
this superb pulpit, so ignominiously treated, has been replaced 
and restored." The paintings on the panels represent Saints 
Boniface, Walburga, Aldhelm, Sidwell, and Petrock, all specially 
connected with Devon (55). 

At Coleridge there is an octagonal pulpit of early fifteenth- 
century design, with singularly beautiful tracery work at the head 
of the canopies in each panel ; but it has suffered from restoration, 
being removed from its former shaft, and is shut in by pillars (3). 



MEDI/EVAL WOODEN PULPITS 



59 




Chivelstone, Devon 



60 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

Bigbury has a finely carved late fifteenth-century pulpit to 
which a story is attached. The authorities of Ashburton church 
sold their old pulpit and eagle to Bigsbury in 1777 for eleven 
guineas ; the curious tale with regard to the " eagle " is told in 
the subsequent account of lecterns. 

Ipplepen is a further example of a fine and somewhat 
elaborate piece of carving of bold fifteenth-century work, as will 
be seen from the illustration ; it has four small canopied niches, 
but the figures are gone (57). Nor must Chivelstone be over- 
looked, which retains a fair amount of the old colouring ; it 
is remarkable for being hollowed out of a single block of oak. 
It affords yet another instance of a well-carved desk pulpit 
contemporary with the screen ; they were reconstructed between 
the years 1504 and 1514. It is of octagonal plan ; each panel 
has elaborately crocketed ogee canopies, and beneath them 
large heraldic shields. The arms include those of Buckfast 
Abbey, Lacy, and Bourchier impaling Hanford. William 
Bourchier married Thomasin, daughter and heiress of Sir 
Richard Hanford (59). North Molton has an interesting old 
pulpit with canopied niches containing painted saints beneath 
them, and Cockington, as will be seen from the illustration, has 
a curiously panelled pulpit of late design ; it has been over- 
restored, and seems to be formed from various fifteenth and 
early sixteenth century fragments. This pulpit was brought 
here in 1837 from Tor Mahon, the old parish church of Torquay. 
The carved oak screen and pulpit of East Allington are of 
historical interest, as they mark the revival of the unreformed 
faith in Queen Mary's days ; they were completed in 1557 (6 1). 

There are other post-Reformation oak pulpits at Bridford, 
Cornwood, Dartington, Pinhoe, Thurlestone, Holne, and St 
Sidwell, Exeter (63, 65). 

The pulpit and prayer desk of Kingsbridge are made up 
out of the lower panels of a fifteenth-century rood-screen. The 
pulpits of Buckland Brewer, Lancross, and Newton St Petrock 
are constructed out of old bench-ends. At Monkleigh the 
pulpit is a reconstruction from parts of an old one of fifteenth- 
century date. 

There are a few instances in DORSET of the survival of 
pre-Reformation oak pulpits. At Little Cheney the pulpit is 
formed of panels with Perpendicular tracery. At Winterborne 
Whitchurch there is a fine pulpit which was removed here 
from the old parish church of Milton Abbas. The old carved 
pulpit of Cranborne bears the initials of Thomas Parker, abbot 
of Tewkesbury, who died in 1421 ; there was here a small 
Benedictine priory, which was a cell of Tewkesbury. 



MEDIEVAL WOODEN PULPITS 



6l 




East Allington, Devon 



62 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

The pulpit of Affpuddle may be mentioned here, for it was 
erected just about the time of Henry VIII.'s death, 28th 
January 1546-47. Both manor and church formerly belonged 
to Cerne Abbey. At the Dissolution, one Thomas Lyllyngton, 
a monk of Cerne, who was "honest and conformable," obtained 
this vicarage. In 1547 he erected this fine oak pulpit after a 
Renaissance style ; it has curiously carved figures in mediaeval 
costumes, which are supposed to be intended for St John Baptist 
and the evangelists. 

DURHAM county possesses a single medieval pulpit of oak 
at Heighington ; it is of early fifteenth-century date, is a fine 
example, and bears the inscription " Orate pro anirnabus Alex- 
andri Flettcher et Agnetis uxors ejus." 

At Witton Gilbert there is the shaft of the mediaeval pulpit. 

ESSEX possesses six pulpits of the Perpendicular period ; 
they used to number seven, but the parish of Heydon was 
transferred to Cambridgeshire in 1895. 

The remarkable pulpit of Wendens Ambo cannot be later 
than 1450, and is probably a decade or two earlier (34). It is 
of octagonal plan, and without a base, whilst the buttresses, 
prolonged by about a foot, have square posts to raise it 
slightly from the floor. No great elevation was required, for 
the church (formerly that of Great Ambo) is quite small. The 
pulpit slightly tapers in shape, obviously following the lines of 
the great oak from which it was cut. The panels are carved 
with cinquefoil heads, and have tall crocketed finials to quasi 
canopies, which terminate in cinquefoil roundels. The two 
panels forming the door differ from the rest in having two of 
these cinquefoils at the base, one below the other. Rickling 
is a fairly early Perpendicular example, but not fourteenth- 
century as sometimes stated ; Leaden Roothing is later. Sandon 
has a good octagonal pulpit with linen-fold panels, temp. 
Henry VII. Layer Marney church was rebuilt in 1520. The 
finely carved pulpit is of that date, or slightly later ; it is of 
hexagonal plan, with two tiers of linen-fold panels on each face ; 
the cornice is enriched Renaissance ; the hexagonal canopy, etc., 
with pendants, is elaborately treated, and is of much beauty. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE has a few interesting mediaeval pulpits of 
oak. The fourth extant example of a fourteenth-century pulpit 
is the little known instance at Stanton in this county. In this 
church there is a fairly good late seventeenth-century panelled 
pulpit, with a canopy affixed to the wall high above it. Strange 
to say, within this pulpit stands another one of some three 
centuries older date ; it came to light when the church was being 
restored about 1900. The tracery of the panelling and the lines 



MEDIAEVAL WOODEN PULPITS 




Dartington, Devon 



64 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

of quatrefoils show it to be of the close of the Decorated period, 
c. 1375, or, at any rate, of the reign of Richard II. This highly 
interesting relic of mediaeval preaching, so remarkably preserved, 
is 4 ft. 9 in. in height. 1 

St Mary de Lode, Gloucester, the old mother-church of the 
city, retains some carved benches and a pulpit as survivals of the 
Perpendicular period. It is of hexagonal plan and effective 
design. The squared panels have trefoiled heads, and the 
carvings of the spandrels are varied in each case ; superimposed 
on the panels are richly crocketed ogee designs of two divisions ; 
at the base is a band of slight carving with diminutive quatre- 
foils. The date is about 1475. Cold Ashton has a wooden pulpit 
with four panels of somewhat similar design ; it stands on a 
stone base, and has over it a stone groined canopy with crocketed 
finials. It was for some time disused in favour of a modern 
substitute, but was considerably restored in 1848. The entrance 
into it, as at Staunton, is by the rood-loft stairs. Its date is 
c. 1500. Bishop Latimer is said to have occupied this pulpit on 
several occasions, but this is only a matter of conjecture, based 
on the idea that he would pass through Cold Ashton on his way 
to Bristol from the benefice which he sometime held at West 
Kingston, Wilts. At Brockworth, halfway between Gloucester 
and Cheltenham, occurs a third pre-Reformation wooden pulpit, 
though it is probably of early sixteenth-century date. It is of 
hexagonal plan, and the five panels are well covered with late 
tracery ; the base and the lowest divisions of the panels are 
modern. 2 The pulpit of Micheldean is also good Perpendicular, 
and has been richly painted, whilst Elmstone pulpit has four 
good panels with later Perpendicular tracery. At Didhurst the 
lectern is constructed out of an old fifteenth-century pulpit. 

At Taynton there is an amalgam pulpit which came here 
from Holy Trinity, Gloucester, when that church was demolished. 
It is partly fourteenth-century, and has a panel temp. Henry VII., 
whilst the front and cornice are Jacobean, with an iron hour- 
glass frame. 

HAMPSHIRE possesses a good instance of a mediaeval pulpit 
in the little but highly interesting church of Dummer. It is of 
half-octagon form, and stands in the north-east angle of the nave 
on a plain low base. The cinquefoil-headed tracery of the 
four panels plainly points to the latter part of the fourteenth 
century, c. 1380. The oak pulpit at Hambledon has some 
good "Perpendicular work of the fifteenth century. Prior 

1 Illustrated and described in Reliq. and Illust. Arch, (1907), vol. xiii. 60. 

2 Those pulpits are illustrated by Dollman, PI. xvii., xxiv., xxx. 



MEDI/EVAL WOODEN PULI'ITS 




Holne, Devon 



66 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

Silkstead (1498-1522) is responsible for the beautiful pulpit of 
Winchester Cathedral (5). 

The pre- Reformation pulpits of HERTFORDSHIRE are of no 
great importance. Graveley is modern, but it incorporates some 
fourteenth-century tracery. The pulpit of Hitchin is early 
sixteenth-century, but it has been much restored. Much 
Hadham is partly made up of fifteenth-century panelling. 
Lilley has a pulpit made up of old linen-fold panels with traceried 
heads, but they have been brought here from St John's College, 
Cambridge. Royston pulpit is a curious amalgam. It has a 
stone base constructed out of an old table-tomb ; the pulpit itself, 
as well as two reading seats, is made up from a fine fifteenth- 
century parclose screen on the south side, which was mutilated 
for the purpose last century. The pulpit of Bygrave is of 
modern construction, but has some fifteenth-century traceried 
panels incorporated with it. The octagonal pulpit of Walkern 
has plain panelling of early sixteenth-century date. 

HUNTINGDONSHIRE has two fifteenth-century pulpits, 
namely, at Cotworth and Fenstanton. The former is described 
by Parker, in 1851, as "a tolerable Perpendicular pulpit," but 
it merits kinder words ; it is of octagonal plan, with plain but 
vigorous tracery, and is embattled at the base ; until its restora- 
tion by a later rector, it showed considerable traces of fairly vivid 
colouring. Fenstanton pulpit, described by Parker as " rather 
late," has some fifteenth-century work in its construction, but 
has been made up at a subsequent date. 

KENT, notwithstanding its large number of old parish 
churches, is but little distinguished for the age or beauty of its 
pulpits. There are hardly any of pre-Reformation date. 

Hollingbourne is a good example of the earlier half of the 
sixteenth century. It was for this pulpit and the altar table 
that velvet hangings, still extant, were embroidered by the 
Ladies Culpepper during the Commonwealth, and presented to 
the church at the Restoration. The pulpits of Boyton Malherbe 
and Sutton-at-Hone have linen-fold panels. 

So far as we know, there is only one pulpit in LANCASHIRE 
prior to the Reformation. Bolton-le-Moors pulpit is a good 
sixteenth-century pre-Reformation example, with linen-fold 
panels, and an embattled cornice ; it stands upon a stem, and 
is semi-octagonal in plan. 

LEICESTERSHIRE is not rich in medieval pulpits. There are 
none of stone. The one to which most interest attaches is that 
of Lutterworth (25). It was for a long time claimed to be that 
from which the reformer WyclifT had preached, but on exami- 
nation this statement proves to be an equal blunder with the 






MEDIEVAL WOODEN PULPITS 





68 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

rest of his so-called relics in this church. Wycliff was rector 
here from 1374 until his death in 1384. This pulpit is of 
advanced Perpendicular style ; it cannot be earlier than 1450, 
and is quite possibly a whole century later than the reformer's 
days. It is of hexagonal plan, and has been restored of recent 
years. The panels, which have ogee-crocketed heads, are filled 
with tracery ; the embattled transom across the centre of each 
panel, and the nature of the filling-in of the spandrels of the 
head, make it impossible that it is otherwise than late fifteenth- 
century carving. Other panelled examples of fifteenth-century 
pulpits within the county include the well- wrought hexagonal 
example of All Saints, Leicester, and those of Saxelby Thorpe 
Langton, and Tugby. 

There is not much left in LINCOLNSHIRE in the way of 
mediaeval pulpits. At Claypole, however, there is a very good 
example of Perpendicular carving in the pulpit closely adjoining 
the rood-screen against the north jamb of the chancel arch, 
with which it is probably coeval, c. 1430. At a later period, 
after about a century had elapsed, a hexagonal canopy was 
made for the pulpit, together with a book-desk, from parts of 
the pulled-down rood-loft, and the desk, strange to say, is sup- 
ported by the stem of a late processional cross, as shown in the 
illustration (67). At Cotes-by-Stow the Perpendicular panels 
were rescued from a barn in 1884 and restored to the church. 
The pulpit at Tattershall is early sixteenth-century ; it is 
enriched with good carving at the base. 

The panels of the pulpit of Lea came from Stixwold Priory 
church. 

At Ingoldmells there used to be two good Decorated 
parclose screens at the east ends of the aisles. A scandalous 
"restoration" of 1865 swept these two fine screens away. 
However, the restorers had the decency to work up some parts 
of this screenwork into a fairly comely pulpit. VVhat was our 
disgust when visiting this church in 1910 to find that this pulpit, 
which told of the past, had been ejected to a dark corner under 
the tower, to make way for one of cold freestone, cheaply 
modelled after the fashion appropriately known as "wine-coolers." 
There used to be a traceried Perpendicular pulpit at Partney, 
but, unfortunately, it gave way to a new stone successor in 1862. 

MIDDLESEX. Not only did London lose some eighty 
churches in the Great Fire, but so many of the county churches 
have been rebuilt, that we believe there is only one pre- 
Reformation pulpit within the bounds of Middlesex. In the 
nave of Westminster Abbey is a good oak pulpit with linen- 
fold panels (c. 1507), removed here from Henry VI I. 's chapel. 



MEDIAEVAL WOODEN PULPITS 





70 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

NORFOLK, with its vast number of old churches (upwards 
of six hundred and fifty), retains twenty-four instances of pre- 
Reformation pulpits, all of timber. They occur at Beeston, 
Bessingham, Brisley, Burlingham St Edmund, Burnham Norton, 
Castleacre, Catton, Cawston, South Creyke, Dersingham, Filby, 
Horsham, Irstead, Litcham, Neatishead, Norwich (St Mary 
Coslany), Seaming, Snettisham, West Somerton, Great Spar- 
ham, Thorning, North Walsham, and New Walsingham. 

Four of these retain much of their original painting. The 
one that deserves the first place is the notable example in the 
small church of Burlingham St Edmund. It is of early fifteenth 
century, and delicately painted. The eight panels, alternately 
red and green, are powdered with stars and flowers. The panels 
are set in crocketed tracery work. The top of the pulpit is 
embattled, and round the base is a series of quatrefoils. The 
upper part has the following legend in black letters : " Inter natos 
imtlierum non surrexit major Johanne Baptista"' The pulpit 
is not improved by the addition of a seventeenth-century canopy 
or sounding-board ; another addition of the same century is an 
iron hour-glass stand. The special feature of the church of Burn- 
ham Norton is the beautifully painted but small pulpit, c. 1475 5 
it has been restored, but after a most careful and limited fashion 
(23). The panels bear the four Latin doctors of the Church, 
and also the kneeling figures of John Goldale and Catherine 
his wife, the donors, for whose souls the prayers of the faithful 
are invited. This highly interesting mediaeval pulpit has also 
been marred by the introduction of an early seventeenth-century 
tester or backpiece. The pulpit of Castleacre has also painted 
panels of the four Latin doctors, but these panels and others 
of the reading desk have been taken from discarded parcloses of 
the aisles. The fourth painted pulpit is that of Horsham. The 
panels are painted with figures of the Blessed Virgin and Child, 
and of Saints John Baptist, John, Andrew, Stephen, Christopher, 
Benedict, Thomas of Canterbury, and Faith. There is also 
a shield of arms of Fordley impaling Bradley. Round the base 
is an inscription, but it is illegible with the exception of the date, 
which is 1480. Snettisham pre-Reformation pulpit has been 
repainted. 

Of the remainder, the pulpit of St Mary Coslany, Norwich, 
appears to be of the same date (1477) as the rebuilding of the 
church. The hexagonal pulpits of Bressingham, Brisley, Filby, 
and Litcham are c. 1500. Breston, Irstead, and Neatishead 
have linen-fold panels. The panels of the Seaming pulpit 
exactly correspond with the base panels of the fine early 
sixteenth-century screen. 



MEDIEVAL WOODEN PULPITS 




Fotheringay 



72 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

NORTHAMPTONSHIRE has a fair number of pre-Reformation 
pulpits of oak still extant. The oldest of these is at Hannington, 
where the small but well-carved pulpit appears to be coeval 
with the screen, and is of advanced Decorated work of the latter 
half of the fourteenth century (67). 

The hexagonal pulpit in the nave of the former collegiate 
church of Fotheringay is of beautiful detail. It is set against a 
pier of the north arcade, and has a small canopy of fan-vaulting, 
also hexagonal. The panelled back or standard bears the royal 
arms of Edward IV., with a lion and bull as supporters, and a 
bull and a boar in panels on either side. The body of the pulpit 
has two tiers of panels, the upper tier having cinquefoiled heads 
with carved spandrels, but the lower ones are of plain linen-fold 
design. By a curious conceit, a second seventeenth-century 
canopy has been placed above the older one, carved with 
arabesques and having pendants of acorn shape 1 (71). 

Both in the pulpit and reading desk of King's Cliff are some 
fifteenth-century traceried panels, but they were brought here, 
with other woodwork, from Fotheringay. At King's Sutton 
the pulpit panels have Perpendicular tracery. The old collegiate 
church of Irthlingborough has a pulpit dating c. 1485. There is 
also fifteenth-century work in the pulpits of Brigstock, Middleton 
Cheney, Rushden, Warmington, and Woodford. 

The only complete pre-Reformation pulpit extant in NOT- 
TINGHAMSHIRE is a panelled one of oak, c. 1400, in the church 
of Wysall. An egregious restoration of 1873 discarded this pulpit 
to be used as a clerk's desk, its place being taken by a common- 
place modern stone tub. The old pulpit was, however, happily 
again honoured in 1909 ; when cleaned it was found to have had 
painted figures on the panels, but they could not be preserved. 
The pulpit of Strelley bears tracery similar to that of the fifteenth- 
century rood-screen, but the base and canopy are Jacobean. 

OXFORDSHIRE supplies one or two instances of good 
mediaeval pulpits of oak. The magnificent church of Burford 
has a delightful octagonal pulpit, c. 1425 ; it has the elaborately 
traceried panels divided by slight crocketed buttresses; it has 
been somewhat, but carefully, restored and repaired ; it now stands 
on a stone base. The well-carved pulpit of Handborough has 
also elaborate Perpendicular tracery, c. 1460. The little 
Decorated church of Widford, fast going to ruin, possessed a 
pulpit with Perpendicular panels when last we saw it (1904). 

Wolvercot, until comparatively recent years, had a wonder- 
fully good fifteenth-century pulpit with beautiful traceried 

1 See plates 9 and 10, Dollman's Pulpits. 



MEDIEVAL WOODEN PULPITS 



73 




Monksilver, Somerset 



10 



74 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

panels and vine-trail cornice ; but a restoration swept it away, 
substituting a commonplace modern one of stone. 1 Three or 
four other Oxfordshire pulpits lay doubtful claim, in whole or 
in part, to old Perpendicular panelling, but there is much doubt 
about them, for one of the chief objects of Victorian restorers 
in this county seems to have been to reduce ancient and modern 
work to a common level. 

The only mediaeval church pulpit of SHROPSHIRE is the 
oak example at Onibury, which is clearly of Perpendicular 
origin, but it has been a good deal spoilt by Jacobean additions. 

The pulpits of Eaton-under- Hey wood (erected in 1670), as 
well as the more modern one of Llan-y-blodwell, Middleton 
Scriven, and Quatford have mediaeval carving incorporated in 
their construction. 

SOMERSETSHIRE is not so renowned for old pulpits of wood 
as it is for those of stone. It possesses, however, one superbly 
carved fifteenth-century oak pulpit, which is superior in design 
and interest to any other throughout the kingdom. We allude 
to the fascinating pulpit of Trull, near Taunton. It can boast 
of five large statuettes, representing St John with chalice and 
dove, and the four Latin doctors : Pope Gregory the Great, St 
Jerome in cardinal's robes, St Ambrose of Milan, and St 
Augustine of Hippo. These figures stand on pedestals beneath 
crocketed canopies, and behind each of the pinnacles of the 
canopies stands an angel, holding the top pair of crockets in 
his hands. On each of the pilasters or buttresses, between the 
large figures, are two other tiny niches all supplied with minute 
figures of other saints. In the days of church spoliation, under 
the boy king, Edward VI., the larger statues were taken down, 
and underwent temporary burial for safety's sake. The church 
is dedicated to All Saints, and this was probably the motive of 
this craftsman in oak (75). 

Another county pulpit, which may fairly be described as 
magnificent, as restored in 1868, is that of Long Sutton. It is 
of late date, c. 1530. The plan below is an octagon, but the 
upper part forms a sixteen-sided figure. An unusual peculiarity 
is that the interior of the pulpit is panelled with trefoil-headed 
tracery. The crockets of the canopies of the small panels are of 
an unusual diameter. The initial letters, W., S., and M., are 
among the corbel mouldings which support the pulpit. A good 
deal of the original colouring and gilding remained when Mr 
Dollman made his drawings (PI. xxv., xxvi.). Dollman 

1 So perfect was this pulpit that it was selected as the one illustration of 
an oak pulpit in Packer's three-vol. ed. of Glossary of Gothic Architecture. 



MEDIEVAL WOODEN PULPITS 




Trull, Somerset 



76 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

(PL xxx.) also supplies drawings of the good Perpendicular 
pulpit of North Petherton, c. \ 500 ; the elaborate traceried 
panels are divided into two parts by embattled transoms. The 
little church of Withycombe, near Dunster, has a pulpit panelled 
with curious tracery designs of early sixteenth-century date. 1 
Monksilver has an interesting pulpit ; the tall, squared panels are 
filled with exceptional tracery (73). The churches of Castle 
Gary and Queen's Camel have good pulpits of about the time 
of Henry VII. To the same period belong the seven panels of 
the pulpit of Selworthy. The four panels of the small church 
of Treborough with cinquefoil heads are late fifteenth-century. 
Notes of the present writer on Combe Flory church, taken 
hurriedly in 1903, assign that pulpit to c. 1450, or at all events 
older than the benches. Bridgwater has a fine exampleof a 
pulpit in black oak, usually considered to date from 1480. 

Though on the verge of the Reformation, the highly interest- 
ing pulpit of Wells Cathedral may find a place, though of stone. 
In the ninth bay of the nave on the south side, gained by steps 
from the west side of Hugh Sugar's chantry, is the stone pulpit 
built by Bishop Knight (1541-47). It is of low construction, 
and fronted with panelled pilasters, and is surmounted by an 
entablature. In front are the bishop's arms, and on the frieze 
is the inscription : " Preach thou the worde be farvent in season and 
ovt of season reprove, rebvke, exhorte w* all longe sufferyng of 
doctryne (Tim. 2)." 

SUFFOLK has three wooden pre-Reformation pulpits of some 
celebrity, namely, those of Southwold, Sudbury, and Hawstead, 
as well as various other fifteenth-century examples. The 
octagonal pulpit of Southwold is coeval with the present fine 
church, which was rebuilt between 1470 and 1490 (25). It is an 
excellent piece of work, each panel enriched with cusped tracery ; 
it is handsomely painted : the colour and diapering are said to 
be reproductions of the original colouring. The fine old oak 
pulpit of All Saints, Sudbury, came to light in 1847, having 
been concealed for centuries by deal boards and a superfluity 
of paint. 2 It is octagonal in form, beautifully proportioned, 
richly carved in the upper parts of the panels, and of late 
fifteenth-century date. When discovered the tracery was as 
perfect as on the day when it was cut, and it underwent but 
slight restoration. This pulpit, c. 1500, forms the subject of one 
of Dollman's plates (PL xxviii.). 

1 See plate, p. 134, of English Church Furniture. The tracery of one bay 
of the fine rood-screen of this church was removed in order to enable a recent 
stout incumbent to proceed straight to this pulpit from his stall in the choir, 
- Journal Arch. Assoc.^ iv. 69. 



MEDIEVAL WOODEN PULPITS 



77 




J. F. II. 



Ivinghoe, Bucks. 



78 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

The third of these good pulpits is that of Hawstead ; it is 
distinctly late in the Perpendicular style, and is considered by 
Dollman (PI. xxix.) to date c. 1540. Each of the eight panels 
is divided into three squared compartments ; the lowest has the 
linen-fold design, the centre one rather clumsily cusped tracery, 
whilst the uppermost has the Tudor badges of the pomegranate, 
portcullis, and rose, and the arms of Drury impaling Calthorpe. 
Sir Robert Drury (ob. 1535) married for his first wife Anne, 
daughter of Sir William Calthorpe; she died in 1513, and was 
buried at St Mary's, Bury St Edmunds, where there is a table- 
tomb with effigies to her and her husband. Other pre-Reforma- 
tion Perpendicular pulpits are Tuddenham St Martin (early), 
Gazeley, Horham, and the later hexagonal one of Theberton. 
The pulpit of Thwaite is considered almost exactly like the 
so-called " Wycliffe " pulpit at Lutterworth, and is therefore 
popularly assigned to the fourteenth century. It has, however, 
been long ago admitted that the Lutterworth pulpit actually 
dates a full century after the reformer's days. Lakenheath, 
Monks Eleigh, and Walberswick have also pulpits of Perpen- 
dicular work. Cockfield has a fifteenth-century base, but is 
otherwise Jacobean. 

The Benedictine priory of Stoke-by-Clare was turned into 
a collegiate church in 1415. Matthew Parker (Archbishop of 
Canterbury under Elizabeth) was the last dean of this college 
at the time of its dissolution in 1553. He restored the nave and 
erected the present pulpit, which usually goes by his name. 

SURREY has two or three pulpits which may possibly date 
from the days of the dawn of the Reformation movement, but 
they will be found mentioned in a subsequent chapter. 

If the Reformation date is held to begin with Edward VI., 
SUSSEX can claim to have two pulpits which date near the dawn 
of that event (c. 1540) at Goring and Rye ; they both have linen- 
fold panels. There is, however, a true late mediaeval pulpit at 
Midhurst, where there is a beautiful example of delicate pierced 
tracery (c. 1 500). 

There are four WARWICKSHIRE wooden pulpits of mediaeval 
date, Aston Cantlow, Wootton Wawen, Henley-in-Arden, and 
Southam. They all show fifteenth-century panelling, but are in 
no way remarkable ; the two last are probably reconstructions 
of old material. 

WILTSHIRE. A particular interest is attached to the 
oak pulpit of West Kingston. Bishop Latimer held this rectory 
from 1530 to 1535, and the present old oak pulpit is said to have 
been the one from which he preached. 

Potterne, whose church is so celebrated for its inscribed Saxon 



MEDI/EVAL WOODEN PULPITS 



79 




G. G. P. 



Over, Cambridgeshire 



80 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

font, also possesses an ancient hexagonal pulpit, which displays 
some good Perpendicular carving. 

The few WORCESTERSHIRE pre-Reformation pulpits are 
not of much importance, but there is a good one of early 
Perpendicular date (c. 1400) at Evenlode, a parish almost 
surrounded by Gloucestershire. The next most interesting is at 
Wickhamford. "The pulpit is octagonal, and appears to retain, 
within a later casing, a fifteenth or sixteenth century pulpit of 
which the inside only can now be seen ; of very solid con- 
struction, with panels framed into arch posts. The outer casing 
has carving in high relief in panels of cherub's heads and standing 
figures of saints, seventeenth -century work, and perhaps Flemish. 
The clerk's desk has six panels of sixteenth-century English 
work." 1 

The pulpit of Middle Littleton is a half octagon with 
fifteenth-century panels, and the like is the case with the pulpit 
of South Littleton. The Badsey pulpit is octagonal on a stone 
base ; the linen-fold panels are of early sixteenth-century work. 
The date is suggested by an entry in the churchwardens' accounts 
for 1529: " Resuyd for y e old pylpet iiijd." Overbury has a 
sixteenth-century pulpit with linen-fold panels. 

The pulpits of Grafton Flyford and Lutley also show certain 
pre-Reformation work. 

YORKSHIRE, notwithstanding its great extent, and its famed 
multiplicity of woodland, has, so far as we know, but a single 
surviving instance of a pre-Reformation pulpit of oak. Ros- 
sington (W.R.) is the possessor of one of the finest examples 
of a fifteenth-century pulpit ; it is supposed to have come from 
the destroyed church of St Mary Magdalene, Doncaster. Round 
the top is the inscription : " Orate pro aia Ricardi Stansall et 
uxoris ejus." Perhaps, however, the Tudor pulpit of Sprot- 
borough (W.R.) should be added, for it has been recently 
almost conclusively proved that it was erected in Queen Mary's 
reign (c. 1555). 

1 Viet. Co, Hist. Worcestershire, ii. 429. 



MEDIEVAL WOODEN PULPITS 




F. II. C. 



Daresbury, Cheshire 



82 



CHAPTER V 
POST-REFORMATION PREACHING 

THE popular notion that with the Reformation came a flood of 
preaching is a complete fallacy. The exact contrary is the case. 
In the later mediaeval days it is true that preachers, preaching 
elsewhere than in their own parish, required a licence, but the 
beneficed parish priest was at all times permitted, nay, expected, 
to preach to his own people. Edward VI.'s Council enjoined a 
strict system of licensing, but ordered that eight sermons a year 
were to be preached in every parish church, but four of these 
were to be against Papacy, and in support of the royal 
supremacy. The licences of that reign were almost purely 
political. 

The Princess Elizabeth, in 1550, wrote to William Cecil, 
when attending upon Protector Somerset, commending the 
bearer, Hugh Goodacar, in strong terms for a preacher's licence, 
a favour which Cecil had obtained at her request " for dyverse 
other honest men." l 

This Goodacar was afterwards chaplain, together with John 
Bale, to Poynet, Bishop of Winchester, and then transferred to 
the Archbishopric of Armagh. 

The Elizabethan injunctions of 1559 imply that a licensed 
preacher should preach in every parish church four times a year, 
and that on other Sundays a homily should be read. One of 
the immediate effects of the Reformation was to materially 
lower the learning of the secular clergy, as is conclusively shown 
by a variety of archidiaconal records. Thus in the year 1563, 
out of the 116 priests of the archdeaconry of London, 42 were 
ignorant of Latin, 13 had received no classical learning whatever, 
and 4 were in every way indocti. Thirty-one of the remaining 
57 were classed in the archdeacon's register as latine mediocriter 
intell, and only 3 had any knowledge of the Greek tongue. 

1 Hist. MSS. Com., xiii. 2, 7. 



POST-REFORMATION PREACHING 




Cockington, Devon 



4 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

Strype, in his Annals of the Reformation, states that the 
custom of ordaining unscholarly candidates speedily passed away 
as soon as the urgent necessity had come to an end, and implies 
that the choice of graduates only was the rule after 1575. But 
this statement can be flatly disproved by various documents, 
more especially by a complete clergy list of 1602, at the very 
close of Elizabeth's reign, in the possession of the Lichfield 
chapter. 1 

In this valuable Lichfield diocesan list there is one column 
for the degree, and another for entry if a preacher, and by whom 
licensed. 

The total number of benefices and chapelries enumerated in 
this list is 461, and the total of clergy 433. Out of this total of 
the clergy, only about one-fourth were graduates viz., 1 10, and 
those who were licensed to preach were less than a fifth, viz., 82. 
The rest are emphatically entered as " no preacher," and one is 
rebuked for preaching in his own cure though he held no licence. 
Fifty-one of the clergy held a licence direct from their own 
bishop, 17 from the Archbishop of Canterbury, 6 from the 
Archbishop of York, I each from the Bishops of Lincoln, Ely, 
and Norwich, and I from two doctors during the vacancy of 
the Lichfield See. One held a preacher's licence from the 
University of Oxford, and 2 from the University of Cambridge. 

There can be no doubt that there was far less preaching 
during Elizabeth's long reign than during any other reign from 
the Conqueror down to the present day. The Government were 
so nervous as to the assaults of Rome on the one hand, and 
Geneva on the other, that the vast majority of the clergy were 
sternly prohibited from preaching. Never, too, has there been 
a period when the pulpit was prostituted to such avowedly 
political use, and that of the worst type, as in the reign of the 
Virgin Queen. Thus in 1585, when William Parry, who had 
acted for some time as a Government spy, was executed for 
high treason and an alleged attempt to assassinate the queen, an 
order of prayer and thanksgiving was issued for the preservation 
of her life. This order is prefaced by an extract from Parry's 
" voluntary confession," written to the queen from the Tower, and 
the minister is commanded, in the directions preceding the order, 
at the end of the sermon or homily on the next Sunday, to read 
this confession, and how he was "animated thereto by the Pope 
and his Cardinals." It is eminently discreditable to Burghley 
and the rest of Elizabeth's Council that they spread this " con- 

1 The present writer printed a complete annotated copy of this document 
in 1884. See vol. vi. of D:rbyshirj Archaeological Journal ', pp. 157-180. 






POST-REFORMATION PREACHING 




C. B. S. 



Brancepeth, Devon 



86 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

fession," under the guise of religion, from every pulpit in the 
land, when they knew perfectly well that Parry had deliberately 
retracted this confession on his trial, asserting it was altogether 
untrue, and extorted from him by threats and bribes, a declara- 
tion in which he persisted when on the scaffold. Again in 
!59S, when the Government had obtained from one Edward 
Squire, a private soldier, after five hours on the rack, an ex- 
travagant confession, subsequently denied in every detail, and 
now universally admitted to be apocryphal, the Council adopted 
the policy of preparing a form of prayer, with a long and 
elaborate statement, to be read from the pulpits, which they 
must surely at that time have known to be untrue, and the 
main assertions of which have long ago been laughed out of 
court. This was the fable of the subtle poison obtained from a 
Jesuit, wherewith Squire was to rub the pommel of the queen's 
saddle and the seat of the Earl of Essex's chair "a confection 
so strong," says the Admonition to this Form, " that the very 
smell thereof did presently strike dead a dog upon which he 
first tried it" 

This paucity of sermons helps to explain the expression 
" sermon bell " often found in parish accounts and inventories of 
this period ; it was the custom on those rare occasions to ring 
one of the smaller bells when a sermon was about to be preached. 

A change came about soon after the accession of James I. 
The number of licensed preachers was greatly increased. 
According to the Canons of 1603, every beneficed preacher was 
to preach in his own cure or in some other adjoining church 
'' one sermon every Sunday of the year" ; every beneficed minister 
not licensed was to procure sermons to be preached, " one in 
every month at the least"; and the churchwardens, at the 
common charge of the parish, were to provide in every church 
" a comely and decent pulpit to be set in a convenient place 
within the same." 

It is usually supposed that with the Restoration the habit of 
preaching extemporarily died out, but Anthony Wood tells us 
that both Universities forbade the use of written sermons in 
the very days in question. 

" Nathaniel Vincent of Cambridge, preached before the 
King at Newmarkett with a long periwige and Holland sleeve as 
the fashion is. Which giving great distast to the King, told the 
Duke of Monmouth, Chancellor of Cambridge, that he caused 
it to be remedied. Wherefor he sent his letter to Cambridge 
that they put the statute in execution concerning decency in 
habit, and that they have their sermons memoriter. This being 
done, the like order was put in execution at Oxford by the 



POST-REFORMATION PREACHING 




T. 



Newport, Isle of Wight 



88 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



Vice-Chancellor, 24 Nov. 1674, and his proclamatyn stuck up 
in all colleges and halls." 1 

Nathaniel Vincent, D.D., was a chaplain-in-ordinary to 
Charles II., and Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge. The 
Oxford order insisted on all sermons before the University, 
whether in Latin or English, being delivered memoriter and not 
from manuscript. 

1 Wood's Life and Times, ii. 297. 




East Brent, Somerset 



8 9 



CHAPTER VI 
POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 

THERE are very few pulpits of the reign of Edward VI. The 
pulpit of Affpuddle, Dorset, is dated 1547, and that of Chedzoy, 
Somerset, 1551 (103). 

The number of Elizabethan pulpits is not large. The 
following are some of the dated examples : Bungay, Suffolk, 
1558; Knebworth, Herts., 1567; Lenham, Kent, 1574; Worth, 
Sussex, 1577; and Rothersthorpe, Northants, 1579. At 
Fordington, Dorset, the stone pulpit is dated 1592. 

It is best to confine the term Jacobean, as applied to pulpits, 
to the reign of James I., and to use the term Carolean for the 
reign of Charles I. The Laudian revival of comeliness of worship 
brought about a variety of well-carved handsome pulpits ; both 
in number as well as in beauty of detail the Carolean examples 
generally surpass the Jacobean. It will be seen from the 
following county lists that a great many pulpits of both these 
periods are to be found in certain counties, such as Northants and 
Notts., whilst several northern shires are nearly destitute of 
pulpits of these reigns. 

The material used for our seventeenth-century pulpits is 
almost exclusively oak, but stone examples are to be found at 
Dinder (1621), Somerset, Yaxley, Suffolk, and Swarby, Lincoln- 
shire. The mediaeval stone pulpit of Brough, Westmoreland, 
was considerably restored in 1634. 

Parish accounts yield occasional particulars as to these later 
pulpits. Here are just a few entries relative to the repair or 
purchase of pulpits during the long reign of Elizabeth : 

1578-79 (St Thomas, Saruni). Mychell Joynes for a cover 

over the powlpete 10 10 

1583-84 (St Matthew, Friday Street). To the joiner for 

makinge the pulpitt - iij li. xv s. 

To the carpenter for a planck and for makinge the 

way to the pulpitt viij s. iij d. 

To the Smyth for Iron Work about the pulpitt vj s. 

12 



90 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

1584-85. For a candelstyck for the pullpyt - viij s. 

1578 (Mortlake^ Surrey). Payd for the pulpet to the 

joiners xxxiij s. iiij d. 

Payd to the waterman for the carriage of the same xij d. 

The references to pulpit constructions and repairs during the 
seventeenth century are so numerous, that it must suffice to cite 
a single case. An order was given in 1631 to Hugh ap Robert of 
Rythin, joiner, " to make and set up in the cathedral church of 
St Asaph, a pulpit of wainscot of 4 ft. in height and breadth, with 
a desk on three sides and a botom of boards upon 4 ft. in 
heighth." 

The Puritan element which objected so strongly to bright 
colours in vestments, altar cloths, and even to painted glass, and 
desired to reduce the House of God to a dreary greyness, 
apparently found it impossible to reduce everything to neutral 
tints, and gave way in the case of pulpit hangings and cushions. 
It was the easier to do this as the pulpit exalted preaching, 
the most human part of the service. Bishop Stubbs, when 
writing about seventeenth-century pulpits, says, with satirical 
humour, " the cushion of which seems to have been an object of 
special devotion." The most absurd sums were not infrequently 
paid for this decking of the pulpit, and matters even went so 
far as to make the neglect of this adornment an ecclesiastical 
offence. 

1593 (St Martins-in-the Fields). P d for the olde Church- 
warden beinge presented before M r Doctor Stanhope 
for not having a pulpett cloth x s. 

1594. P d for iij yardes and iij q nhs of blacke velvett for a 

cloth for y e pulpett and for frindge and Buckeram iiij li. 
For y e flowres theron ymbrodered - xxiiij s. 

1603-04 (St Martin, Leicester). Payd to Coldwest for Worke 

abowte the pulpitt vj s. 

Item for paintinge of it v s. 

1605-06. For halfe a yarde and a reale of grene carsie for a 

cushione for the pulpitt iij s. 

For j read skyne and white skyne for the same xvij d. 

.For vij and a halfe of fether fringe and Crewell for 

the same - iiij s. iiij d. 

1634-35 (St Oswald, Durham}. For 5 yeardes of Padua Serge 
togither with Silke for making the pulpitt cloth and 
cushion -321 

For making the pulpitt cloth and cushion 7 o 

For workinge the fringe for the pulpitt cloth and 

cushion and for fethers and a ledd i r o 

1635-36 (St Edmund, Santm). Stuffe and fringe for y e Pulpit 

Cusheon - - -130 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 




G. G. B. 



Abbey Dore, Herefordshire 



92 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

1646-47. Eleven yardes and a quarter of velvett at i5d. the 

yard for the Pulpitt cloth and Pulpitt Cusheon - 3 8 9 
Eleven ounces of fringe ingraine and 3 quarters at 

2S. 6d. per ounce - -191 

Foure Tassells for the Cusheon 8 o 

Embroydering the figures on y e Cloth 12 o 

Buckrum and silke and making up the Pulpitt Cloth 

and Cusheon -140 

More to B. Beckham for woorke don, as by his bill -210 o 

No wonder that the more sober-minded of Salisbury became 
disturbed at the gaudiness of the pulpit as testified by the next 
entry : 

1652. The pulpit Cloth bee forborne to bee layd because 
the Color is offensive to the sight of some of the 
parish. . . . The laying of the Pulpit cloth to be 
left to the discrecion of the C.W. 

Heavy payments continued elsewhere for smart pulpits during 
the Commonwealth. Thus at Bishop Stortford, in 1658, when 
a new pulpit cost $, the cushion for the same amounted to 
i. 1 8s. 6d. 

At Prestbury, Cheshire, pulpit adornments formed a serious 
charge on the accounts throughout the century : 

1625. Paid for the Communion Tablecloth fringe and 

furnishinge the pulpitt -iiij. iiij s. xj d. 

1660. Paid for the pullpitt cloth and furniture - ^8 o o 

1660. Pd for a new Pulpit Clothe Cushion and 

vallence - 15 05 oo 

1660. Pd for the 'Carriage of these from London to 

Prestbury 10 06 06 

Out of a large number of post-Restoration entries relative to 
the gorgeous and expensive characters of those cushions, St 
Martin's, Leicester, may claim to hold the record, for in 1678-79 
occur these entries in the parish books : 

For a new cover for the pullpit and the coveringe 

it - xxj s. vj d. 

For a pullpitt cloth of velvet and a cushion of 

the same xvjli xviij s. viij d. 

For two yardes of fine cotton at xvj d. the yard 

for a case for the velvet cushion ij s. viij d. 

It will be seen from the following county lists that a fair 
number of the seventeenth-century pulpits retain their well- 
carved testers or canopies, and those of later date the flat 
sounding-boards ; others have been stupidly despoiled of these 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



93 




All Saints, Hereford 



94 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

accompaniments ; and some appear never to have possessed 
them. When complete pulpit, tester, and pedestal they often 
form an imposing ensemble. In nearly all cases they were 
designed as a single composition. Many a foolish parson has 
pulled down the sounding-board to use it as a vestry table. We 
have noticed this use in about a score of vestries up and down 
the country ; in one case we have seen it serve as a table in the 
vicarage study; and still worse is the instance in which this portion 
of a pulpit, beautifully inlaid and cunningly wrought, has been 
pulled out of the church to which it was given, and now does 
duty as the rectory dinner table ! Parsons and architects have 
also frequently combined to ruin the effect of an old Jacobean 
or Carolean pulpit by placing it on a white stone base. 

Mahogany hardly came into general use in England till well 
on in the eighteenth century. St Margaret's, Lynn, possesses 
a fine classical mahogany pulpit of 1742, but the base and 
stairs are new (142). Another mahogany pulpit occurs at 
Kinoulton, Notts., erected in 1793. At Hucknall, Bucks., both 
pulpit and reading desk are of finely carved mahogany. But 
the most striking pulpit in this wood is the well-carved nave 
pulpit of Lincoln Cathedral, of the end of the eighteenth century. 



"THREE-DECKERS" 

The church of Morden, Surrey, retains a good example of 
early eighteenth century ; it bears the date 1720, and the initials 
of the donor, Elizabeth Gardiner. This lady also gave the 
altar cloth of crimson velvet with a border of gold braid. She 
was the daughter of George Garth, a lady of the manor, and 
founder of a free school. 

Sail, Norfolk, is a good early example of a three-decker, with 
canopy and standard. The old-fashioned little church of M in- 
stead, Hants, has a genuine three-decker with hexagonal canopy, 
but it has been somewhat rebuilt ; and Newton St Cyres, Devon, 
is another canopied example. Others can be noted at Downham 
St Leonard, Lancashire, Icklingham, Suffolk, and Ronald kirk, 
Teesdale. At the last of these there is a curious little churching 
pew below. At Thornaby, Yorks., and Brancaster, Norfolk, good 
three deckers have of late years disappeared (99, 97). 

Nearly all churches built or rebuilt between about 1700 and 
1830 had their pulpits placed centrally, obscuring or completely 
hiding the altar. Sir Stephen Glynne, writing in 1845 f 
Weaverham church, Cheshire, says : " The pulpit bestrides the 
avenue of the nave, and hides the view of the altar." This 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



95 




Sefton, Lancashire 



96 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

odious arrangement disappeared almost everywhere before the 
advance of the Catholic revival of last century. 

BEDFORDSHIRE. -- The church of Cockayne - Hatley is 
elaborately furnished with old woodwork of different periods, 
brought here from the Continent. The pulpit was obtained from 
St Andrew's church, Antwerp, and is dated 1559. It is of 
hexagonal shape, and on each side is a carved panel, four of 
which bear figures of the Evangelists. 

Wymington is a good example of a true Jacobean pulpit ; 
it is hexagonal with squared panels, well carved in the upper 
part ; there is a hexagonal table with pendants, supported by 
a standard. Coulton and Caddington also possess good plain 
Jacobean pulpits. The pulpit of Sutton is dated 1628 ; it is a 
good Carolean specimen. Bolnhurst, Chellington, Stadden, 
Odell, and Whipsnade are further instances of seventeenth- 
century date. Astwick church retains an eighteenth-century 
pulpit, with reading desk and clerk's seat. 

BERKSHIRE is well supplied with pulpits of post-Reformation 
date. Those of Shallingford, Stanford-in-the-Vale, and Sunning- 
well are Elizabethan. The last of these, though suffering from 
modern repairs, is of interest as having been frequently occupied 
by Bishop Jewel (Salisbury, 1559-71), who was rector here about 
1551, until he had to flee in Queen Mary's time. 

The pulpit of Newbury, with two tiers of arcaded panels, is 
early Jacobean, dated 1607 ; when last seen by the writer (1899) 
it was painted dark green, relieved by gold ; it now stands on a 
stone base. The pulpit of Boxford, finely carved, is dated 1618, 
and that of Waltham St Lawrence, 1619. The following pulpits 
of this county are conventionally termed Jacobean, though 
probably fully half are Carolean : Ardington, Baulking, Great 
Coxwell, Drayton, East Garston, East Jsley, East Lockinge, 
Longcot, Lyford, Pangbourne (beautiful arabesque carving), 
Ruscombe, Steventon, Wargrave, Long Wittenham, and 
Yettendon. East Lockinge is, however, distinctly early 
Jacobean ; the panels are divided into three, the centre having 
arcaded work ; it is one of those numerous instances in which 
its effect has been spoilt by being placed on a modern stone 
base. The hexagonal Jacobean pulpit of Cumnor, which stands 
against the south jamb of the chancel arch, has a large coeval 
reading pew, handsomely panelled ; close at hand, whilst im- 
mediately to the south of the pulpit, is a desk bearing a fine 
example of a chained Bible of much interest. This Bible, dated 
1611 (probable date of the pulpit or pew), was used by the 
Oxford University Press in 1832-33 for producing an exact 
reprint of the authorised version (196). 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



97 




G. H. W. 



Brancaster, Norfolk 



98 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

There are several dated Carolean pulpits (153). The one at 
Binfield, with good sounding-board, bears the year 1635, whilst 
the well-carved pulpit of Hurst is about the same date. 1 
Archbishop Laud, as we gather from his diary, preached more 
than once at Hurst, when he was the guest of Sir Francis 
Windebank, Secretary of State, at Haines Hill. The pulpit of 
St Helen, Abingdon, is dated 1634, and bears on its panels the 
appropriate motto, "Ad haec idoneus quis? At St Lawrence, 
Reading, a large sum was given for a new pulpit of good 
Renaissance design in 1639 ; it was sold in 1741 for four guineas 
to Aldworth in this county, where it may now be seen. 2 The 
handsome pulpit of East Hendred, with sounding-board, has the 
carved head of Charles I. The West Hanney pulpit is dated 
1649. At Bucklebury there is a three-decker from which Dean 
Swift is said to have preached. 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE has a considerable number of seven- 
teenth-century pulpits for so small a county ; they number 
about forty. The octagonal plan is usual for pulpits of this 
period in most parts of the country, but in Buckinghamshire 
they are generally hexagonal. The pulpits of Boveney, 
Cheddington, Chesham, Dinton, Dorton, Grendon Underwood, 
Ivinghoe, Langley Marish, Lavendon, Lillingstone Lovell, 
Middle Clayden, Pitstone, Stantonbury, Towersey, and Twyford 
appear to be true Jacobean, that is of James I. days. Ivinghoe 
is a notable and beautiful example ; it is of hexagonal plan, 
with elaborate mitred panels and richly carved cornice ; the 
standard at the back is carved in relief with the Resurrection ; 
the pierced hexagonal canopy, with its pinnacles and pendants, 
is well shown in the illustration (77). Langley Marish is an early 
example ; it was given by Sir John Kidderminster in 1609. 
Lavendon and Lillingstone Lovell are both panelled in two 
tiers of round-headed arches. Pitstone has elaborately moulded, 
mitred panels, with egg-shaped bosses ; the standard is panelled, 
and the sounding-board has turned pendants. Towersey, of 
hexagonal plan, has each panel in two tiers, the upper one of 
conventional foliage, and the lower arcaded. 

Carolean instances occur at Dorney, Hitcham, Lower 
Winchendon, Shabbington (dated 1626), Steeple Clayden, 
Weston Turville, Wing, and Winslow. Dorney has two tiers of 
panelling in inlaid work, c. 1630; this pulpit was placed here of 
late years it is said to have come from Somerset. Hitcham 

1 As to the very remarkable hour-glass stands of these two churches, the 
later dated 1636, see p. 155. 

2 See illustration in Cox's Churchwardens' Accounts, p. 157. 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



99 




W. M. 



Thornaby, Yorkshire 



160 PULPITS, LECtERNS, AND ORGANS 

and Lower Winchendon have both good canopies. Winslow is 
richly carved ; the bookshelf is supported by bird brackets. 

Post-Restoration instances occur at Bearstall, Ickford, Iver, 
Princes Risborough, Radnage, Ravenstone, Wavendon, Willen, 
and Wraysbury. Ickford has a canopy enriched with guilloche 
ornament. Ravenstone has moulded panels and a flat sounding 
board. Wavendon, of hexagonal plan, is of classical design, 
with cherubs' heads, fruit, and flowers in high relief; it is said to 
be the work of Grinling Gibbons, and was brought here from the 
city church of St Dunstan-in-the-West. The sounding-board of 
Iver church is in the vestry ; that of Wraysbury is in use at the 
vicarage as a dining-table. 

As to the CAMBRIDGESHIRE post-Reformation pulpits, the 
one at Chattisham is probably Elizabethan. The church of 
Over has a most effective Jacobean pulpit, with tall single 
arcades on the panels ; a similarly arcaded panel of a larger 
size serves as standard or backpiece to a beautiful octagonal 
canopy, with lofty pyramidal cover. The pedestal, which is 
good late fourteenth century, doubtless served for a former 
mediaeval pulpit (79). The pulpits of Barrington, Brinkley, Croy- 
don, Great Eversden, Grantchester, Harlton, Kingston (a fine 
example), Newton, Rampton (good with sounding-board), and 
Trumpington are all usually called, with customary vagueness, 
" Jacobean," l though two or three are Carolean, and at least one 
Commonwealth. Dated Carolean instances occur at Little 
Shelford (1633), Barton (1635), and Great Shelford (1636). 
With consummate bad taste, Cherry Hinton turned out its good 
seventeenth-century pulpit ; it was given shelter at Taversham. 
The pulpit of Brinkley is possessed of an absurdly foolish 
adjunct. " At the back is placed, resplendent in gold and 
colours, a constable's staff, dated 1734." 

So many of the churches of CHESHIRE have been entirely 
rebuilt or modernised that there are but few remains of 
seventeenth-century pulpits. The octagonal pulpit of Prestbury 
is dated 1607; it bears the Latin legend " Attendite Dominus 
Alloq'ifr" At Daresbury there is a remarkable but distinctly 
unattractive hexagonal pulpit, which appears to be quite early 
Jacobean (81). The panels are in two tiers; the upper one 
arched, the arch being formed by cherubs' wings ; the lower ones 
have strapwork and a central boss ; the large brackets to support 
the cornice are repulsive human grotesques. The pulpit of the 
timber church of Marton is c. 1620. Siddington pulpit bears 
E.M. 1633. At the third timber church of Warburton the plain 

1 As in Rev. Evelyn White's Churches of Cambridgeshire. 






POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



101 





IO2 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

pulpit is usually considered early Jacobean, but it may be late 
Elizabethan and coeval with the font cover, which is dated 1595. 
At Shotwick there is a canopied churchwardens' pew with the 
date 1673 I this may also be the year of a quaint high pulpit. 

CORNWALL affords various good examples of post-Reforma- 
tion pulpits. The one in the beautiful and picturesquely- 
situated church of Mawgan-in-Pyder is of special interest, 
for it is known to have been constructed in 1553 during the 
Marian revival ; the six panels bear emblems of the Passion. 
Five pulpits, namely, those of Fowey, Lanreath, St Kew, St 
Mylor, and St Winnow, can be identified with the later Elizabethan 
days. Of these Lanreath is specially well carved ; the central 
panel bears a double-headed eagle ; St Winnow and St Kew 
have good arabesque designs ; and the hexagonal pulpit of 
Fowey is dated 1601. The pulpits of Boconnoc, St Mellion, 
and Stratton are Jacobean. Those of Blisland, St Teath, South 
Petherwin (1631) and Liskeard (1636) are Carolean. In the 
churchwardens' accounts of Liskeard for 1636 occur the follow- 
ing entries : " Pd Peter Shorte the joyner for makinge the New 
Pulpitt, 10.00.10 ; For making the Pulpitt stayres for borde and 
nayles, 00.09.06." The pulpit of St Teath, dated 1630, is of 
singular interest. It displays the arms, crest, and supporters of 
the family of Carminow ; a younger branch of this most ancient 
Cornish family held the manor of Trehannick in this parish ; the 
family became extinct in 1645. The arms are : Az., a bend or, 
a label of three points gu. ; the crest, a dolphin embowed or ; the 
supporters griffins. As the label has been left gules (red), it seems 
a pity that the other colours of this well-carved coat have not 
been reproduced. As it is, the pulpit presents a patchy appear- 
ance, a good deal of new work of a poor kind having been 
introduced at a comparatively recent restoration. But by far 
the most interesting feature of the pulpit remains to be noted. 
The motto below the arms is in the old Cornish tongue " Cala : 
rag : whetlow" " a straw for a talebearer." We are inclined to 
think this is the only church in the county where the old Celtic 
language appears. The language was rapidly decaying at the 
time when this pulpit was set up; but in 1640 the vicar of St 
Feock was obliged to administer the Blessed Sacrament in Cornish 
to his older parishioners. The last sermon in Cornish was preached 
in Landewednack church in 1678. Lawhitton pulpit is dated 
1 65 5, and Marham church is about the same period. The pulpit 
of St Ive is 1700; it is covered with debased carvings (51). 
The church of St Mary, Truro, now encompassed by the new 
cathedral church, has a polygonal inlaid pulpit of Chippendale 
work. 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



103 





104 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



We have during different years, now rather remote, visited 
every old church or chapel in CUMBERLAND, and have no 
recollection of any old pulpit of either mediaeval or post-Refor- 




G. G. B. 

All Saints, Pavement, York 




C. F. N. 



Abbotsbury, Dorset 



mation date, save for one unimportant exception. At St John- 
the-Vale, a chapelry of Crosthwaite, which was rebuilt in 1546, 
the old oak pulpit, with sounding-board from the former chapel, 



was in use. 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS IO5 

DERBYSHIRE has but few old post-Reformation pulpits. 
At Weston-on-Trent there is a good Jacobean example dated 
i6ii,and bearing the initials C.T., I.R. The parish church of 
Chesterfield possesses an exceptionally good Jacobean pulpit, 
with small classical columns at the angles, but it has been con- 
siderably repaired. 1 An entry in the registers under 1788 states 
that " the pulpit and desk were decorated anew, the old ornaments 
having been up thirty-seven years." 

There are Carolean pulpits at Breaston and Sawley, 2 the 
former dated 1625, and the latter 1636. 

Considering the size of DEVON, the number of post- Reforma- 
tion pulpits of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is not 
large. The elaborate carving, heraldic and symbolic, of the 
pulpit at Alvington, has not at present been satisfactorily 
dated, but it is somewhere near the centre of the sixteenth 
century. The pulpit in the little church of Welcombe is clearly 
Elizabethan, and so too is the discarded one of Renaissance 
design at Sutcombe. 

The fine church of Hartland has a pretentiously carved but 
ineffective modern pulpit in the nave ; this replaced a really 
fine Jacobean pulpit at the time of its restoration, about 1830. 
Five well-carved panels of this pulpit can still be seen behind 
the organ, bearing the words, " God save King James Fines." 
What the word on the last panel means is a puzzle. It is 
possibly some forgotten family name, perhaps that of the donor 
of the pulpit. Ines is a surname not unknown in the West ; 
the carved letters are all capitals ; could they have meant 
Frederick] Ines? 

Some old churchwarden accounts of this parish contain the 
following entries. James I. died 2/th March 1625. Can it be 
that the word Fines, by mistake for Finis, was added after his 
death ? 

1609-10. Paid for a new pulpite - - xxxiij s. iiij d. 

For bringing the same pulpit from Bideford xv d. 
1624-25. Paid William Maze for setting up the King's 

name on the pulpit - ij s. vj d. 

Ashton, a square pulpit, with standard and square tester, is 
probably early Jacobean : and so too are those of Stockleigh, 
Pomeroy, and Bradworthy. The fine pulpit of Bradworthy was 
for a time occupied by a marvellous scamp of a vicar, William 
Lang, in the days of Charles I. According to Mr Baring-Gould, 

1 Described and illustrated in Gotch's Early Renaissance in England, 
p. 221. 

2 Illustrated in Building News, I2th June 1885. 

14 



106 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

this man, who began life as a sand-carrier, was vicar of this 
parish, and sheriff's bailiff at the same time. After forging 
several warrants, he fled to Ireland, but on obtaining the bishop's 
forgiveness he returned to Bradworthy, became a solicitor, and 
alarmed his flock by threats of action. The next step was to 
turn the vicarage into a public house, and worse than that, " he 
sent his daughter into the pulpit to catechise the children ! " 
This is said to be the only Church of England pulpit that has 
ever been occupied by a woman. Eventually Lang found his 
way to prison in London. 

There are three instances of dated pulpits of the Carolean 
period, namely Axminster (1633), Clovelly (1634), and Braunton 
(1636). Both Axminster and Braunton are good specimens of 
fine carving ; the panels have double tiers of round-headed 
arcading. 

The pulpit of South Tawton is exceptional ; the dark oak 
has inlaid figures of lighter wood within the square panels. The 
coeval stairs are guarded by twisted balustrades, pointing to 
the pulpit being of post-Restoration date. 

DORSETSHIRE has various good pulpits of the seventeenth 
century. Abbotsbury has a very good Jacobean hexagonal 
pulpit with double tiers of arcading on the panels ; it has been 
unhappily and ignorantly disfigured by the removal of its effective 
canopy or sounding-board. Two small holes in this pulpit are 
said to have been caused by Parliamentarian soldiers firing 
through the windows (104). At Upwey there is a good Jacobean 
pulpit ; for a long time there were affixed to the base of this 
pulpit three large oak figures of the Apostles St Peter, St Philip, 
and St James, which were supposed to have been taken down 
from the old rood-loft ; however, in 1891 they were removed from 
their unwarrantable position and transferred to the chancel. The 
Jacobean pulpit of Broadwinsor is the one which was used for 
some years by Fuller ; he was presented to this living in 1634, 
suspended during the Civil Wars, but returned with the Re- 
storation. The pulpit is polygonal, with rows of panels divided 
by Gothic buttresses. The pulpits of Dorchester St Peter, 
Netherbury, Portisham, and Frome Vauchurch are usually 
described as Jacobean without knowing their precise date. 
Of these the good octagonal pulpit of Dorchester is undoubtedly 
early Jacobean ; it stands on an octagonal panelled shaft ; the 
pulpit panels have two tiers of arcaded work (107). Lyme Regis 
has a fine Jacobean pulpit with sounding-board, on the soffit of 
which is inscribed "To God's Glory, Richard Harvey of London 
mercer and merchant Adventurer built this anno 1613. Faith is 
by hearing" 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



107 





108 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

The simple but elegant pulpit of Todbere is of the days of 
Charles I., and so also is that of West Chickerell, dated 1630. 
The pulpit of Cerne Abbas is a really beautiful example of 
Carolean work ; it is of octagonal plan, and the two tiers of 
panels are both arcaded ; the fine octagonal canopy bears the 
date 1640, and the supporting standard has an arcaded panel 
over a conventional thistle. At Cheriton Marshall there is an 
unusually lofty pulpit, with canopy over it, crowned by a gilded 
pelican ; it is probably of the same date as the rebuilding of the 
church, namely 1718. 

DURHAM. Brancepeth is celebrated for the singularly fine 
woodwork bestowed upon this church by the great Bishop 
Cosin, who was rector from 1626 to 1644 (85). The pulpit is a 
noble piece of craftsmanship. It is of oblong plan, with circular- 
headed classical panelling and elaborately carved cornice. The 
noble standard, panelled with a lozenge moulding, supports a fine 
but possibly overwrought canopy or tester, with pendants at the 
angles and a profusion of towering pinnacle work above. The 
pulpit, together with the reading desk and oak stalls, of 
Haughton-le-Skerne, are all about the end of the seventeenth 
century. At Egglescliffe there is a somewhat curious eighteenth- 
century pulpit with sounding-board. 

ESSEX. In the fine church of Thaxted, on the south side of 
the nave, is a dignified seventeenth-century pulpit of hexagonal 
plan, with a corresponding sounding-board ; it stands on a tall 
central shaft. The Jacobean pulpits of Aveley and Matching are 
dated respectively 1621 and 1624. The former is well carved 
and has a sounding-board. Parts of the pulpit of Woodham 
Mortimer are Jacobean. 

There are two dated Carolean pulpits the one (1630) is at 
Stondon Massey, and the other (1639) at Great Baddow ; the 
latter is a fine example with a tester. At Peering the pulpit 
has well-carved scenes from the Passion ; it is of modern con- 
struction, but the figures are old. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE has a fair share of interesting post- 
Reformation pulpits. The one at Winchurch is undoubtedly 
late Elizabethan. The imposing church of Chipping Campden 
has a finely carved Jacobean pulpit, dated 1612, the gift of the 
munificent Sir Baptist Hicks, who died as Viscount Campden 
in 1639. This pulpit is figured in the Architectural Sketch Book, 
vol. x., 3rd series (169). At Elkstone there is an earlier and good 
example dated 1604. The carefully repaired and most interest- 
ing church of Oddington has a beautiful instance of Jacobean 
work with a fine canopy. Iron Acton has also a canopy. The 
Jacobean panels of an old pulpit behind the poor modern sub- 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



109 





1 10 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

stitute might easily escape attention. The pulpits of Stoke 
Orchard and Duntsbourne Rous are either late Jacobean or 
early Carolean. The well-carved pulpit of Rodborough was the 
gift and bears the arms of Jasper Escourte ; the donor died in 
1624. Maismore has a good Carolean pulpit dated 1636. The 
church of Taynton was burnt down by the Royalists in 1643, and 
rebuilt by order of Parliament in 1648 ; the well-carved oak 
pulpit came from Holy Trinity, Gloucester, on its demolition ; 
it retains an hour-glass frame. The Brimpsfield pulpit is one 
of the few Commonwealth examples ; it is dated 1659. At 
Farmington there is an early eighteenth-century pulpit. 

The Bristol churches retain several pulpits of Renaissance 
style and date, but in no case do they remain in an unaltered 
condition. They are to be found at St Stephen, St Mary-le 
Fort, Christchurch, and St Thomas. The pulpit at St Thomas's 
is noteworthy, as it is a most unusual combination of two woods, 
walnut and oak ; in this case the base of the pulpit appears to 
have been utilised as a reading desk. 1 

There are a number of well-carved pulpits of different periods 
of the seventeenth century here and there throughout HAMP- 
SHIRE. The church of Bishop's Waltham has been so 
extensively and frequently restored that it has lost almost 
all antiquarian interest, but it still retains an exceptionally 
handsome panelled pulpit with enriched tester of late 
Elizabethan, or possibly early seventeenth-century date. 

The hexagonal pulpit of Kingsclere is an elaborate example 
of early Jacobean work ; it has two tiers of panels,, which are 
crowned with shallow arabesque patterns. Fawley has an 
octagonal early Jacobean pulpit, with arcaded panels and 
a projecting book-board. The pulpit of Basing is hexagonal, 
dated 1622, and of good workmanship ; the panels, both arched 
and square, are elaborately carved with strap ornaments and 
other designs. It was brought here from the church of 
Basingstoke. At Sopley there is an early Jacobean pulpit with 
strapwork carving ; it is probably of the same year as a chair 
dated 1604. The Dursley pulpit is a good Carolean example; 
it has two tiers of panelling, the upper with arabesque designs, 
and the lower arcaded ; the octagonal tester is inscribed " A.W., 
E.D., T.C., 1630." 

Odiham has an elaborately carved pulpit ; it closely resembles 
that of Winchfield, which is dated 1634. The latter has panels 
in two ranges ; the upper contains small grotesques and the 
lower palms in pots and other floral designs. At Silchester 

1 See Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch. Trans., vol. xxxii. 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



III 





f 






112 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

the pulpit is hexagonal, and over it is an octagonal canopy 
inscribed " The guift of James Hore, gent, 1639." This effective 
canopy has a domed top surmounted by a dove, whilst the 
cornice, enriched with carving, has similar arches and pendant 
fleurs-de-lis. Durley pulpit is a good octagonal specimen with 
two tiers of panels, the upper with arabesque ornament, and the 
lower arcaded ; the octagonal tester bears on its panelled soffit 
" A.W., E.D., T.C., 1630." At Finsbury there is a seventeenth- 
century pulpit and clerk's desk with arcaded panels, and the 
inscription " Wo is unto me if I preach not y e Gospel, I Cor. 
ix. 1 6." Alton has a particularly fine pulpit of late Carolean 
work, but undated, with detached pillars at the angles. There 
are two in the county erected in the Commonwealth period. 
The pulpit at Tadley, with a panelled sounding-board, is dated 
1 658. The pulpit of Monk Sherborne has panels of flat arabesque 
work, and was set up by William Dobson, rector, ob. 1654. 
There is a decidedly good pulpit at North Badderley, with 
inlaid panels and an octagonal tester. It is probably late 
Elizabethan, for the adjacent screen is dated 1682. The plain 
octagonal late seventeenth-century pulpit of Upper Clatford has 
an octagonal sounding-board. On the pulpit of the parish 
church of Portsmouth there is a hanging of red velvet, with a 
silver fringe, and the date 1694. Finally, some notice must be 
taken of the Jacobean pulpit in the nave of Winchester Cathedral, 
a good example of its kind. It was ejected from New College 
chapel, Oxford, and given to Dr Mayo, a former fellow, and 
presented by his family to the cathedral in memory of his sister, 
who died in 1884. 

The ISLE OF WIGHT has, for its size, so many good seven- 
teenth-century pulpits that it is as well to group them together. 
At Whitwell there is a well-carved, arcaded Jacobean pulpit, 
dated 1623, which only cost the churchwardens \. The 
church of Wootton has a good pulpit much earlier in the reign 
of James I. The gracefully wrought tester added to the stone 
pulpit of Shorwell has been already named ; it was doubtless 
among the benefactions of Sir James Leigh, and is probably of 
the year 1617, which is the date piercing the tail of the weather- 
cock surmounting the spire of his reconstruction. Shalfleet 
pulpit is a rather good example of early Jacobean work, though 
of simple design. There is a fairly good Jacobean pulpit at the 
drastically restored old church of Mottiston, but its effect is 
considerably damaged by a new stone base. In the much- 
falsified church of Brightstone there is yet another good Jacobean 
pulpit, which cost the churchwardens $ ; it was, however, a 
good deal spoilt during restoration in the middle of last century. 






POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 




W. F. 



Oxford Cathedral 



114 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

Northwood supplies an example of an excellent seventeenth- 
century pulpit, with tester and canopy over it, which we believe 
to be of Carolean date. Yarmouth used to possess a singularly 
effective Carolean pulpit, dated 1636 (which the writer more 
than once admired in bygone years), but the Goths of 1875 
ejected it in favour of a poor modern "Gothic" substitute of 
stone ; this discarded pulpit has now found a home on the other 
side of the Atlantic. 

Newport rejoices in by far the most beautiful pulpit of the 
seventeenth century throughout the kingdom. The fine old 
church, though in substantial repair, was destroyed in favour of 
a showy successor in 1854. Fortunately the singularly good 
Carolean pulpit, with its wealth of carving and its noble tester, 
escaped destruction when the fabric was swept away. It was 
the gift of one Stephen Marsh in 1636; his crest (an arm 
couped grasping a battleaxe) is on a panel at the back. The 
elaborate carving with which the whole structure was enriched 
was the work of Thomas Caper, whose family device, a goat, 
may also be seen at the back. The cresting of the tester 
includes figures of Justice and Mercy, supported by trumpet- 
bearing angels, whilst below on the soffit is inscribed : " Cry aloud 
and spare not, lift up thy voice like a trumpet'' The pulpit itself 
is divided into fourteen panels in two tiers. The upper row 
has carved figures of the three theological virtues, Faith, Hope, 
and Charity, and of the four cardinal virtues, Justice, Prudence, 
Temperance, and Fortitude. In the lower row are the seven 
liberal sciences, with their names on scrolls beneath Grammatica, 
Dialectica, Rhetorica, Musica, Arithmetica, Geometria, and 
Astronomia (87). 

The panelled pulpit of the mutilated church of Carisbrooke, 
with tester or sounding-board, is a good Commonwealth example, 
dated 1659. 

The pulpit of Newchurch, with a great clumsy canopy 
surmounted by a figure, probably dates from 1725. 

HEREFORDSHIRE has some good examples of seventeenth- 
century pulpits. The pulpit of All Saints, Hereford, is a striking 
instance of late Jacobean, dated 1621 (109). It is of hexagonal 
plan and is full of details, as will be seen from the illustration. 
The panels, divided by classical pilasters, are arcaded below, but 
are squared with mouldings. Below the cornice is a strip of strap- 
work, and in the centre of each panel is a short piece of vine 
trail. The handsome hexagonal tester is not supported by any 
backpiece or standard connected with the pulpit, but is simply 
attached to the wall ; its soffit bears the following in plain 
lettering " Howe beautyful are the feete of them that bring glad 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 




Croscombe, Somerset 



Il6 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

tidings of peace'.' It adds to the interest of this pulpit to find 
that the churchwarden accounts supply the price : 

1621. Item payed the Asyners for their Tymber and 

workmen their labour the Pulpit - vii 

There is another good hexagonal pulpit of almost like date 
at Abbey Dore, close to the bold Jacobean screen with which 
it harmonises (91). There is considerable resemblance in this 
to the much larger and more remarkable display at Croscombe, 
Somerset. The tester in this case, with its elaborate cresting, 
is supported by a standard with a double arcaded panel like 
those of the pulpit itself (115, 117). Winforton has a Jacobean 
pulpit with the date 1613, and the name of the donor, Thomas 
Higgins, on the panels. 

The Carolean pulpit and reading desk of Stoke Bliss, dated 
1635, strictly speaking, comes under Worcestershire, as the parish 
was transferred to that county in 1897. 

The panels of the pulpit of Bosbury have four remarkable 
sacred carvings, which are doubtless of Flemish origin : (i) The 
Virgin and Child, (2) the Offering of the Wise Men, (3) the 
Agony in the Garden, and (4) the Crucifixion. The third of 
these crowds together a variety of incidents. 

HERTFORDSHIRE is well supplied with pulpits of the seven- 
teenth century. The pulpit of Knebworth is of richly carved 
Flemish panelling, made up in the sixteenth century. One of 
the panels is dated 1567. Stanstead Abbotts has a Jacobean 
pulpit ; a sixteenth-century tester, formerly over the pulpit, has 
been made up into a tower-arch screen. Great Munden has a 
hexagonal early Jacobean pulpit, with two tiers of arcading, and 
Sandon is another good example. 

There is a distinctly good early Jacobean pulpit at Bushey ; 
it is of octagonal design, surmounted by a tester ; the projecting 
book-rest is supported by scrolled brackets. The hexagonal 
pulpit of King's Langley is an interesting example, with tester, of 
early Jacobean work, though repaired in modern days. Still 
better workmanship is shown in the hexagonal pulpit of North 
Mimms, which is usually spoken of as "early Jacobean," but 
the squared design of the panelling is more likely to be late 
Elizabethan, c. 1590 ; there is a deep band of carving above the 
panels ; both cornice and base are modern. There can be no 
mistake about the hexagonal Puttenham pulpit being early 
seventeenth-century ; it has the two characteristic tiers of panels, 
the upper carved with scaly, fish-like figures, and the latter with 
a lozenge pattern. The pulpit of Long Marston is also Jacobean, 
with two tiers of panels, but of simpler character than the last 



POST- REFORMATION PULPITS 



117 




Croscombe, Somerset 



Il8 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

named. Codicote also is distinctly plain Jacobean ; the upper 
tier of panels is arcaded, whilst the lower have lozenges in the 
centre. Moreton hexagonal pulpit is another instance with back- 
piece and tester ; the moulded panels show it to be quite early 
in the seventeenth century. Bishop Latimer is said to have 
preached " several times " in the pulpit of Hunsdon, and another 
account asserts that it was Bishop Ridley ; this is curious, for 
it is dated 1620, and both bishops died in 1555! This pulpit 
has two tiers of plainly-modelled panels and a canopy. 

Two of the most exceptional of Hertfordshire pulpits of this 
century yet remain to be briefly noted, namely those of Sarratt 
and St Michael, St Albans. The former is hexagonal, with a 
square tester supported by a standard or backpiece ; there are 
two tiers of square panels, with curious perpendicular lines of 
mouldings, which almost give the effect of the linen-fold pattern ; 
they are divided at the angles by double slender shafts turned 
like balusters ; the whole speaks of the dawn of the seventeenth 
century, almost Elizabethan. It is said that Richard Baxter 
used this pulpit on several occasions. The octagonal pulpit of 
St Michael's church is a singularly fine specimen of quite early 
Jacobean, with a good tester and headpiece ; the central squared 
panels of formal moulding have richly carved bands above and 
below ; the widely projected book-board is supported by pierced 
brackets. To the west side is fastened a tall iron hour-glass 
stand (158). 

There are two dated pulpits of Carolean work, namely 
Ashwell, dated 1627, which is a really fine piece of work, and 
Aston Bury, with octagonal panelling, which is dated 1634. 

Bishop's Stortford retains a panelled Commonwealth pulpit 
dated 1658 ; it is of hexagonal plan, and stands on a hexagonal 
shaft supported by carved brackets. 

Watford parish church possesses a good pulpit of post- 
Restoration date, c. 1675 ; it is hexagonal, with a carved cornice, 
inlaid panels, and garlands at the angles in single relief. The 
pulpit of Ware is of late seventeenth-century date ; it is hex- 
agonal, with raised lozenge-shaped panels. Great Anwell has 
an octagonal pulpit with lozenge-shaped panels ; the cornice 
is dated 1696; it came originally from the archiepiscopal 
chapel at Croydon. 

There are also seventeenth-century pulpits to be seen at 
the churches of Albury, Little Hadham, Puttenham, Ridge, 
Sawbridgeworth, Totteridge, Wheathampstead, and Wormley. 

HUNTINGDONSHIRE has a finely carved octagonal 
Elizabethan pulpit with canopy at Orton Waterville ; the panels 
are bordered with foliage. 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 




F. H. C. 



St Decuman's, Somerset 



120 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

In 1625, when the church of Little Gidding was put in order 
throughout, " the pulpit was fixed on the north, and the reading 
desk over against it on the south side of the church, and both 
on the same level, it being thought improper that a higher place 
should be appointed for preaching than that which was allotted 
for prayer." 1 

With regard to KENT, the pulpit at Smeeth is probably 
Elizabethan, and the one at Lenham, which has a canopy, is 
dated 1574. St Nicholas-at-Wade, in the Isle of Thanet, has 
an exceptionally good pulpit of early Jacobean date ; it is most 
likely one of those which were ordered in obedience to the 
Canon of 1603. The five panels have three divisions, the central 
one carved with a round-headed arch ; the rail to the stairs is 
coeval. Cowden has a good pulpit, dated 1620. The pulpits of 
Lower Halstead (with a canopy), Sutton-by-Dover, Monkton, 
Seal, Dartford, Teynham, and Upchurch are all either Jacobean 
or Carolean.' 2 Sevenoaks is certainly Carolean, and is dated 
1636. This good pulpit is said to have come here from Wrotham. 
Cliffe-at-Hoo is another well-carved example of that reign, 
standing on a modern stone pedestal ; it is dated 1634, and has 
an hour glass as well as stand attached. The pulpit of St 
Nicholas, Deptford, is of the year 1697 ; it is good for the date. 3 

LANCASHIRE retains a single Elizabethan pulpit and a few 
of the seventeenth century. The pulpit of Deane is of black 
oak ; it is of late Elizabethan date, with much Renaissance 
detail ; there is also a backpiece or standard supporting a tester. 

Standish possesses a beautifully enriched Jacobean pulpit. 
It is octagonal, and each panel is divided into three divisions. 
It stands on a low, well-moulded stem, and under the cornice 
is this inscription on six sides : " Necessitas mihi incumbit vae 
miki si non evangelizavero, exsuinptibus W. Leigh Rec. 1616." 
On the remaining side, one being open, is " W. Leigh Rect. 
Donum Ded. Deo. 1616." The pulpit of St Mary, Lancaster, is 
dated 1619. 

At Radcliffe, in Salford Hundred, there are two seats at the 
west end composed of portions of the seventeenth-century 
pulpit and reading desk. The seat on the south side of the 
tower arch has the date 1606, the Assheton crest, and various 
initials. On the seat on the north side are the initials of Charles 
Beswick, rector, the date 1665, and the inscription: "All my 

1 MS. of Nicholas Ferrar, cited in Hierurgia Anglicana, i. 72. 

2 In Dr Grayling's two little volumes on Kent Churches, they are all 
somewhat vaguely termed " seventeenth-century." 

3 Arch. Assoc. Sketch Book, 1898. 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



121 




F. H. C. 



Bishop's Lydeard, Somerset 



16 



122 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

words that I speak unto thee, receive into thy heart with thine ears. 
Ezekiel iii.^ chap, x" 

The Jacobean pulpit of Hoole was much spoilt in the last 
century, when some small Gothic panels were introduced ; the 
backpiece and canopy are original ; they were taken down and 
cleaned in 1859. 

There is a somewhat fine example of a Carolean pulpit, dated 
1635, in the Lancashire church of Sefton. It is octagonal, with 
pilasters at the angles, and has two tiers of panels worked in 
arabesque in low relief. It rests on a tall octagonal shaft, and is 
crowned with an octagonal tester with a panelled soffit and 
pendants at the angles. Round the tester is the inscription : 
" My sonnefeare thou the Lorde and the Kinge and medle not with 
them that are given to change " ; there is another incomplete 
inscription round the cornice of the body of the pulpit : " He 
that covereth his sinne shall not prosper, but whoso confesseth and 
forsaketh them shall have mercie; happy is the m . . ." This 
pulpit has of late years been moved from the middle pier on the 
north side, and, with singularly bad taste, been set against the 
wood screen on the north side of the entrance to the chapel (95). 

The oak pulpit of Garstang is a good piece of late Carolean 
work, dated 1646, with square moulded panels; the stem and 
top moulding are new. 

The old church of Walton-le-Dale was pulled down in 1905 
to make way for a successor. Sir Stephen Glynne tells us that 
the old church was remarkable for its two lofty pulpits, one on 
each side of the chancel arch, each with a conspicuous iron 
staircase. 

LEICESTERSHIRE has two good pulpits, c. 1600, which are 
possibly Elizabethan, but more probably Jacobean, namely 
those of Bottesford and Loddington. The latter is sometimes 
said to have come from Launde Abbey, but this is, of course, 
a blunder. Peatling Magna pulpit is Jacobean, with an elaborate 
and unusual canopy. The seventeenth-century enriched pulpit 
of Shepsted now stands in the vestry. Another example is to 
be noted at Great Easton. 

An interesting Carolean pulpit occurs at Muston. This 
pulpit, together with the screen, was erected in 1640 by the 
then rector, Robert Saunderson, who was afterwards Bishop 
of Lincoln from 1660 to 1663. 

At Thornton there is an early Renaissance pulpit. Long 
Whatton gives shelter to the old pulpit of Colston Bassett, 
Notts., when that highly interesting old church was so 
scandalously gutted and left to go to ruin in 1892. 

The great county of LINCOLN has a fair number of post- 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



123 




A 







Rodney Stoke, Somerset 



124 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

Reformation pulpits extant of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. The pulpits of Navenby and Wrangle are clearly of 
Elizabethan days. The good Elizabethan pulpit of Skirbeck 
has a desk supported by three birds. Of the Jacobean pulpits, 
one of the best is at Alford ; other undated examples occur at 
the churches of Hanningham, Kirkby Underwood, Knaith, 
Saltfleetby All Saints, Silk Willoughby, and Wigtoft. The 
most interesting and best example, with a tester over it, is 
the pulpit erected at Croft in 1615, by Dr Worship, vicar there 
from 1599 to 1625, to the memory of his wife. A brass to her 
memory in the south aisle is thus inscribed : 

" Here lyeth the bodie of Agnes Worship, a woman machles 
both for wisdom and godlynes. She was the wife of William 
Worship, Doctor of Divinitie and minister of Croft, and departed 
this life the 6th daie of Maye, Ano. 1615." 

Another dated Jacobean example occurs in the grand church 
of Boston ; it bears the year 1620. The Jacobean pulpit at 
Frampton came from Bourne Abbey church. The fine pulpit of 
Burgh is dated 1623. 

Helpringham pulpit is undoubtedly somewhat later, and 
entitled to be called Carolean. Another interesting and excep- 
tional Carolean pulpit occurs at Skidbrook ; it has a tester and 
supporting backpiece or standard ; on the latter is carved. " R. 
1628," and the lion and unicorn facing each other, but lacking 
the royal arms. Surely this is a unique arrangement (109). 

At Friskney there is also a well-carved seventeenth-century 
pulpit with a tester, but this is a Commonwealth example. It 
bears the date 1659, and the initials, "W. P., W. C." At Whaplode 
a Carolean pulpit has been pulled to pieces to form a small 
screen in the transept. 

The seventeenth-century pulpit at Utterby bears the inscrip- 
tion of a man of reverent and humble mind : " Quoties conscendo, 
aniino contimesco? 

At Swarby the pulpit bears the following couplet : 

" O God my Saviour be my sped 
To preach thy word men's soulls to fed." 

Lutton has an inlaid pulpit and canopy dated 1702. They 
were provided by a bequest from the celebrated Dr Busby of 
Westminster School, who was born in this parish. 

MIDDLESEX. Only seven London churches are now left of 
those that were standing before the Great Fire of 1666. Of 
these All Hallows, Barking, has a handsomely carved pulpit 
given by John Burnell in 1613. In 1638 the vestry requested 
the wardens to " take care that a new pulpitt hedde be made in 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



125 




Stoke St Gregory, Somerset 



120 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

regard the old one is too small " ; the new head bears the motto 
" Xpm pudicum Crucifixum? St Giles, Cripplegate, has a beauti- 
fully carved pulpit of the year 1704; it had originally a sounding- 
board. St Helen's, Bishopsgate, pulpit is a fine piece of seven- 
teenth-century carving. St Katherine Cree has a well-carved 
pulpit of cedar, the gift of John Dyke, as mentioned by Strype. 
The church of St Olave, Hart Street, was demolished in 1568 ; 
the handsome pulpit, assigned to Grinling Gibbons, was moved 
to St Benet, Gracechurch Street, but has been much spoilt by 
being mounted on an incongruous white stone base. 

Of the fifty and odd new churches designed by Wren, 
less than a score retain the generally fine and richly carved 
pulpits with which they were originally furnished. Nine pre- 
serve the canopies or sounding-boards with which they were 
invariably supplied. Several of these sounding-boards have 
been foolishly removed during recent years, and this was also 
done at St Katherine Cree, in 1874, where the sounding-board 
now serves as a vestry table. The best examples of Wren's 
pulpits are to be seen at St Mildred, Bread Street, and at 
Christ Church, Newgate Street. 

MON MOUTH. The pulpit at Caerwent bears the date 1632 ; 
a rough representation of LlandafT Cathedral on the central 
panel ; the arms of Sir Charles Williams of Llangibby, and the 
inscription : " Woe is unto me if I preach not the Gospel'" At 
Trelleck the reading desk is dated 1634, and the pulpit 1640. 
The pulpit of Llangibby is early Hanoverian, and has a 
sounding-board. 

Considering the vast number of its churches, the old post- 
Reformation pulpits of NORFOLK are not numerous. The carved 
work of the Wickhampton pulpit proves it to be Elizabethan, 
and this is also the case with that at Ranworth. 

The sounding-board of the old pulpit of Fincham, now a 
vestry table, bears this inscription : " Gregory Watson servant to 
the Right Worshipful Sir Francis Gawdy, Knight ', made this at his 
own charge. Anno Dni. 1604." The well-carved pulpit at Cley 
is dated 161 1. The undated pulpits of Caston, Merton, Tacolnes- 
ton (unusually large), Tibenham, and Griston, the last two with 
testers, are usually styled Jacobean, but are quite as likely 
Carolean. 

North Elmham pulpit, elated 1626, is inscribed " Verbnm Dei 
manet in aeternumr Other dated Carolean pulpits are Thornham 
and Wiggenhall St Germans (1631), Tuttington (1639), and 
Necton (1636). The old pulpit of Kingham bore the text, 
" Necessity is laid upon me, yea woe is me if I speak not the Gospel" 
It was of interest as having been used by Robert Peck, rector, 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



127 




F. II. C. 



St Cuthbert, Wells 



128 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

"a man of very violent schismatical spirit" In 1636 he plucked 
up the altar rails, levelled the altar, and lowered the chancel 
by a foot. For this he was prosecuted by Bishop Wren, when 
he fled the country with some of his parishioners, and founded 
the town of Kingham in New England. Ten years later, when 
bishops were abolished by Parliament, Peck returned, regained 
the living, and died here in 1656. 

NORTHAMPTONSHIRE possesses, for its size, an unusual 
number of old post-Reformation pulpits, several of them of 
considerable merit. Possibly this may have arisen from the 
fact that Northamptonshire was essentially the home among 
all other shires where Puritanism of an extreme type and of 
foreign origin took root, and several of whose ministers made 
not the slightest scruple in receiving episcopal ordination and 
accepting Church benefices, whilst they deliberately repudiated 
the main episcopal doctrines and practices. Among such as 
these the exaltation of preaching at the expense of the sacra- 
ments was the very essence of their creed. 1 

There used to be an Elizabethan pulpit at Kelmarsh ; in 
1559 William Humphrey bequeathed I2d. "towards the making 
of the pulpitt " in this church. Rothersthorpe pulpit is Eliza- 
bethan, inscribed u 1579 F. S." ; Francis Somervell was at that 
time patron of the living. 

It is rather difficult to decide, even after repeated examina- 
tion, the true date of the fine painted pulpit of Oundle, with 
traceried panels curiously bedecked with gilded leaden stars. So 
good an authority as the late Mr Brereton considered it fifteenth- 
century ; but Whellan and others state that it is of the year 
1554, and that it used to be known as "the Reformation pulpit." 
This was probably the date of its reconstruction, mainly from 
old material. Upton, near Peterborough, has the best of the 
early Jacobean pulpits, with canopy and panelled standard. 
Castor has also a good pulpit with arcaded panels, and a tester 
or canopy over it. At Nassington the pulpit is Jacobean, with 
the base of an hour-glass stand attached. Barnwell St Andrew 
and Kingsthorpe have good arcaded panels of this style. The 
pulpits at Chelveston, Creaton, Polebrook, Pytchley, Tansor, and 
Wilbarston may be pronounced, with a certain vagueness, as 
Jacobean. Glapthorne, Towcester, and Warmington are made 
up of Jacobean panelling. It is almost incredible to have to 
chronicle the sacrilegious maltreatment of the once fine Jacobean 
pulpit of Marholm, noticed by Paley in 1859. A recent rector, 

1 See Viet. County Hist, of Northants, vol. ii. pp. 43-83 ; and Rev. R. M. 
Serjeantson's All Saints, Northampton, pp. 101-121, and St Giles, North- 
ampton, pp. 37-61. 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



129 





130 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

a canon of the Church, had the audacity to cut it up into a 
sideboard for the rectory dining-room, and there it is, we are 
assured, at the present day ! 

Ashby St Ledgers pulpit was put up by Mr Janson, who 
purchased the property in 1612; it is exactly similar in style 
to the woodwork in the Hall. Earl's Barton has a remarkably 
good early Jacobean pulpit ; the panels are of two tiers ; the 
lower ones are arcaded, enclosing a conventional rose of ten 
petals ; the imitation Gothic vine trail on the cornice is note- 
worthy. Dallington is another example of double-tiered 
panelling ; the upper row is arcaded and the lower one bears 
roses. 

The Carolean pulpit of Alderton is dated 163 1. It is inscribed : 
"/ the Lord will meet thee in this place and tell thee what thou 
shalt say to the people, Ex. xxv. 22." It has arcaded work 
in the lower panels and strapwork above. On the lower 
side of the sounding-board most stupidly removed during 
recent years but still in the church are cherubs' heads. 
Pakenham pulpit is Carolean ; the panels bear rose, thistle, 
fleur-de-lis, and harp. It is inscribed: "Despise not prophesyng. 
Crie aloud spare not lift up thy voice like a trumpet^ The 
pulpits of St Giles, Northampton, and Catesby are also Carolean. 
At Harringworth is a seventeenth-century pulpit, which was 
given shelter there when ejected from Barrowden, Rutland, as 
a consequence of an 1875 restoration. The very beautifully 
carved pulpit of Abington was given to the church c. 1700. 

The following extract occurs in the parish register of 
Den ford : 

" A parochial visitation was held in Dentford church June ye 3 d 1718. 
Wherein according to order of court y r is to be a new pulpit w ch they 
thought they should have sliped, but they could not, for w ch I'm glad off." 

NOTTINGHAMSHIRE has a variety of old post-Reformation 
pulpits. The church of Markham Clinton, in an odious and 
scandalous condition (1911), contains a noteworthy Elizabethan 
pulpit fast going to decay. There are two Jacobean pulpits 
with inscriptions Laneham, " Soli Deo honor et gloria" and 
Wheatley (1604), " Wo unto me except I preach the Gospel" 
Eakring has a small good Jacobean pulpit with tester and 
backpiece. Headon is also early Jacobean with a tester. 
Egmanton, Weston-on-Trent, and Winkburn seem also to 
be true Jacobean. Barton-in-Fabis has a Jacobean framework, 
but the panels have been renewed. There are two of Carolean 
date, namely Granby, 1627, and Syerston, 1636 ; the latter is 
an exceptionally good and perfect example with a tester. 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 




T. B. 



Stratford-sub-Castle, Wiltshire 



132 TULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

Walkingham and Maplebeck are later in the seventeenth 
century. 

OXFORDSHIRE. There are a fair number of seventeenth- 
century pulpits in Oxfordshire. Two of these, usually termed 
Jacobean, are more likely late Elizabethan, namely Bucknell 
and Kidlington. Two can be proved genuine Jacobean, as 
they are dated, namely Stadhampton 1611, and Charlton-on- 
Otmoor, 1616. The pulpit of Christ Church Cathedral is a fine 
and beautiful piece of workmanship ; it is of pentagonal plan, 
and the centre of each panel has double arcading ; the standard, 
of unusual width, and also doubly arcaded, supports an elaborate 
pentagonal canopy, crowned by curved ribs carrying a pelican. 
But the illustration conveys a far better idea of its construction 
than any description in words (113). The work is known to 
be Carolean, of Dean Duppa's days (1629-38). 

A great contrast to this elaborate piece of work, but equally 
Carolean, is the small village pulpit of Merton (101), with 
its simple pedestal and four unrailed steps. The pulpits of 
Chalgrove, Chastleton, Cropredy, Great Milton, Stonisfield, 
Stratton Audley, and Water Eaton are usually described by 
the generic term "Jacobean," but two or three of them are 
probably Carolean, and were erected under Laudian influence. 
At Fringford some old panels from a house at Hardwicke have 
been used in the forming of a pulpit. 

In the church of All Saints, Oxford, which was reconstructed 
throughout on classical lines 1706-8, there is a good pulpit 
with sounding-board. 

The little county of RUTLAND has nothing to offer us in 
the way of mediaeval pulpits, and but little of the seventeenth 
century. Under a disastrous restoration of 1875, Barrowden 
turned out its Jacobean pulpit ; it is now to be found at 
Harringworth, Northamptonshire. But some few remnants of 
it were left behind ; these were put together to help to form 
another pulpit, during a much happier restoration of 1885. The 
pulpit of North Luffenham is either Jacobean or Carolean. The 
pulpit of Uffingham is of repute, though unhappily somewhat 
spoilt by alterations, for there is no doubt that it was frequently 
occupied by Jeremy Taylor, who was instituted to this rectory 
in 1638. 

Perhaps the exceedingly curious church of Teigh, the whole 
of which was rebuilt, except the tower, in 1781, should be 
named. "The seats," writes Mr Crowther-Beynon, "for the 
congregation are arranged in ascending tiers, facing north 
and south, like those of a college chapel. At the west end of 
the nave, against a kind of screen, are three boxes serving for 



POST-REFORiMATION PULPITS 



133 




G. G. B. 



Wilby, Suffolk 



134 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

the pulpit (centre) and desk for parson and clerk, these being 
approached by a staircase behind the screen." 

STAFFORDSHIRE possesses no instance of Elizabethan pulpits, 
but there are several good examples of the seventeenth century. 

The earliest is the excellent one at Wednesbury, dated 161 1 ; 
but probably that of Bitley is about the same year, for the 
chancel of the church was rebuilt by Sir Ralph Egerton in 
1610-11, and the pulpit appears to have been of like date. The 
splendidly carved pulpit and sounding-board at Sandon, the 
simpler one at Aldridge, as well as the good seventeenth-century 
example at the interesting old timber church of Rushton, are 
probably all strictly Jacobean. Staffordshire, however, has some 
notable Carolean woodwork indicative of the genuine church 
revival of Laudian days. At Mayfield the altar rails of the 
chancel are really beautiful work of 1633. The pews, pulpit, and 
reading desk are thoroughly good, and dated 1637 and 1639; 
the pulpit bears a quaintly abbreviated inscription : " Be faithful, 
&c., and I will give thee a crown, &c" The good pulpit of 
Alrewas bears the date 1639, and the inscription, ''Jesus Christ 
and Him Crucified? 

There is a Commonwealth pulpit at King's Bromley dated 
1659. The pulpit and sounding-board, excellent for their date, 
bear the year 1702. 

There are a large number of so-called "Jacobean " pulpits in 
SHROPSHIRE, but a fair number are modern make-ups of panels 
intended for other purposes. As a single set-off against this, it 
may be mentioned that at Church Stretton the panelling near 
the font forms part of a discarded pulpit. 

At the disused church of Sutton, the Elizabethan pulpit is 
of the year 1588. The chancel of Shipton was "re-edified and 
builded of newe at the charges of John Lutwick" in 1589, and 
there is no reason to doubt that that is the age of the pulpit. 
Shawbury is the earliest of the dated Jacobean examples, where 
the pulpit and reading desk are of the year 1612. At Easthope 
there is good carving on the oak pews, with this inscription : 
" Edward Ball of London gave this pulpit and pewes to tJiis parish 
wheare he was borne June 28 Anno Domini 1623." Lydbury 
North is dated 1634. 

The dated Carolean pulpits are more numerous ; they include 
Tasley (1628), Tong and Quatt (1629), Bitterley (1630), Ashley 
Abbots (1633), Cressage and Petton (1635), Wroxeter (1637), 
Hope-Bowdler and Clee St Margaret (1639), and Church Preen, 
with reading desk (1646). The octagonal panelled pulpit of 
Cressage is inscribed along the base, " Houmfry Dalle the elder 
made this for John Dalle^ which I fray God bles unto his end. 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 135 

Amen: 1635." Petton pulpit, of the same year, was brought 
there from Wrexham. Albrighton-by-Shifnal, Kenley, and 
Pitchford have seventeenth-century pulpits with canopies. 

The pulpit of Clun is c. 1650. At Easton-under-Heywood 
the richly carved pulpit has a canopy dated 1670. Minsterley, 
with a sounding-board, is c. 1689. At Halston there is an inlaid 
sounding-board of the year 1719. The sounding-boards of both 
Hordley and Whitchurch have been turned into vestry tables. 

At Stapleton there is a pulpit antependium, "said" to have 
been worked by Mary Queen of Scots. 

Oswestry possesses the pulpit once occupied by John Howe, 
the friend of Milton, and chaplain of Oliver Cromwell. It now 
stands in the vestry of the Congregational church. 

The extensive county of SOMERSET has a large number of 
post-Reformation pulpits, but there are only one or two of 
Elizabethan date. Chedzoy, with long linen-fold panels, is early 
in the queen's reign, and it is probable that Rimpton is about 
the close of the same reign (103). The true Jacobean, i.e., of 
the reign of James I., are numerous ; among them may be 
named those of Barwick, Charlton Adam, Luccombe, Lydiard 
St Laurence, Tintinhull, Stoke-sub-Hamdon, and Weston-in- 
Gordano. Three pulpits bear the rose and the thistle con- 
ventionally treated under arcading, namely those of Bishop's 
Lydiard, Tintinhull, and Wedmore ; the last of these, together 
with the reading desk, shows some of the finest Jacobean 
carving in Somerset. Of dated examples the pulpit of Hill 
Farrance bears the date 1611, Somerton 1615, whilst the three 
pulpits of Kittisford, West Pennard, and Pilton are all dated 
1618. The grand pulpit of Croscombe, in harmony with the 
magnificent Jacobean screen, is known to have been the gift 
of Bishop Lake in 1616, the first year of his episcopate ; it bears 
the arms of the see and of two other benefactors, Sir William 
Palton and Hugh Fortiscue, then lord of the manor ; beneath 
the cornice run the words : " Blessed are they that hear the Word 
of God and keep it" * (i 17). The lovely little church of Brean has 
an effectively carved pulpit, which bears, at the top of the central 
panel, " George Gvdridgave this, 1620" Rodney Stoke possesses 
an interesting screen and pulpit, both of which were given to 

1 It is curious how differently educated people regard this fine display 
of Jacobean carving. The Rev. G. W. Wade, D.D., and the Rev. J. H. 
Wade, M.A., who recently wrote a Little Guide to Somerset, were so steeped 
in Gothicism that they style this pulpit " barbaric," and the screen " fearful 
and wonderful" ! Whilst Mr Hutton, himself a Roman Catholic, in High- 
ways and Byways, considers them both " very lovely." 



136 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

the church by Sir Edward Rodney in 1624 ; the pulpit has 
two tiers of arcading on the panels (123). 

There are also a number of Carolean pulpits. The earliest 
of these which are dated is that of Huish Episcopi, 1625. 
Elworthy pulpit is of the same date as the screen, 1632 ; it is 
approached by the rood staircase. St James's, Taunton, has a 
pulpit dated 1633, East Brent 1634, and Ubley 1637 (107). The 
pulpits of Stoke St Gregory, Thurleston (1634), and North 
Newton (1637) are remarkable, as they all bear figures under 
the arcading : Stoke St Gregory has five figures in relief, namely 
the Blessed Virgin and Child, Faith, Hope, Charity, and Time ; 
Thurleston has Faith, Hope, Charity, and a fourth figure ; and the 
same is the case at North Newton (125). The striking Renais- 
sance pulpit of St Cuthbert, Wells, was erected in 1636. It is of 
hexagonal plan, and is frankly pagan throughout, as will be seen 
from the illustration. The panels are separated by double 
columns ; perhaps the best features are the bird brackets sup- 
porting the cornice (127). 

SUFFOLK is well supplied with a considerable number of 
good seventeenth-century pulpits. The earliest dated example 
occurs at Monk Soham, where the pulpit bears the year 1604. 
Other dated instances of the reign of James I. are Stonham 
Aspall 1616, Great Ashfield 1619, and Occold, with a sounding- 
board, 1620. Great Ashfield, which is four-sided, is an excep- 
tionally beautiful example with tester and back panelling. 
Laxfield pulpit (see illustration) is of a singularly tasteful but 
simple design ; it is raised on a series of turned shafts (129). 
Kelsale is undoubtedly early Jacobean, and a good example ; the 
panels are divided into three, the central ones are arcaded, those 
at the top are carved with grotesque animals, whilst the lower 
ones have intricate strapwork. The peculiar feature is that 
the pilasters between the panels have a touch of Gothic in their 
crocketed finials. Halesworth, which is said to be 1611, offers 
a distinct contrast to Kelsale (129). Others which are more or 
less vaguely termed Jacobean, include Little Bealings, Great 
Blakenham, Burgh St Andrew, Felixstowe, Plympton, Hadleigh, 
Knoddishall, Rattlesden, Somerton, Little Waldingfield, Wen- 
haston, Westhall, Witnesham, Worlingworth, and Yoxford. 1 
Of dated Carolean examples the county possesses four of 
unusual merit The pulpits of Chediston and Rumburgh are 
dated 1637; they both are of an exceptionally refined pattern, 
and are clearly the work of the same craftsman. By an egregious 
display of bad taste, a restoration of the church of Cookley in 

1 See Bryant's County Churches of Suffolk, 1912. 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



137 




Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey 



18 



13$ PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

1894 brought about the ejection of the 1637 pulpit, when it was 
happily saved by the church authorities of Chediston. Another 
Carolean pulpit is to be found at Aldeburgh, dated 1638. 
This octagonal pulpit has a wide bookshelf, rising from a slight, 
well-carved cornice, resting on elaborate pierced brackets. It has 
the panels carved in three-squared divisions, with arcades in the 
central compartments. Blythburgh has a handsome octagonal 
pulpit of the year 1670; each division has two squared panels 
carved with bold designs ; the brackets supporting the wide 
book-rest are unusually large (in). 

The pulpit and reading desk of Wangford afford fine 
examples of Flemish inlaid work of the seventeenth century. 
These two pieces of church furniture are constructed out of 
the large pulpit which used to stand in the private chapel of 
Henham Hall ; it was burnt down in 1773. 

The lack of good pre-Reformation pulpits in the SURREY 
churches is somewhat remarkable, as the supply of timber was 
abundant in most parts of the county. Possibly two or three 
of these mentioned below are of Henry VIII. days. 

At Crowhurst the pulpit is formed of linen-fold panels of 
fairly early sixteenth-century date. The same is the case with 
the pulpit of Beddington and the hexagonal pulpit of Nutfield, 
where the panels are in a double tier. The octagonal pulpit 
of Charlwood is a curious amalgam of sixteenth-century linen- 
fold panels and of other carved cartouche panels with painted 
texts of late Jacobean date. The large square pulpit of Tatsfield 
is made up of traceried panels taken from a rood-screen, which 
was destroyed in the first half of the nineteenth century. The 
pulpit of Cranleigh, during an egregious restoration of 1845, 
was made up out of some rich traceried panels and parts of 
a cornice pertaining to a fifteenth-century parclose screen 
then destroyed. Woking is more likely late Elizabethan 
than early Jacobean ; the panels have tall, simple arcades. 

The pulpit of Godalming parish church has certain features 
in the handsome panels which enable us to describe it as 
Elizabethan rather than Jacobean. Banstead is Elizabethan 
with linen-fold panels. The pulpit and reading desk of Chipstead 
are of late Elizabethan date with moulded panels and pilasters. 
Alfold pulpit is quite early Jacobean, with a sound-board held up 
by a scrolled iron rod. Stoke D'Abernon pulpit is a handsome 
and remarkable example of early Jacobean date ( 1 36). It is seven- 
sided, and supported by a central shaft with elaborately carved 
brackets. At the angles are fantastic Ionic pilasters surmounted 
by grotesques. The faces have carved and inlaid panels with 
enriched mouldings, and the crown mould and book-rest are 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



139 




Holy Trinity, Guildford 



140 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

elaborately ornamented. At the back is a carved standard of 
similar detail, with an heraldic shield charged with the Vincent 
arms and quarterings. Above is a large sounding-board or tester, 
with a carved central panel of grotesque design, angle pendants, 
and carved cornice, held up by a pair of elaborately scrolled 
wrought-iron stays. 1 The pulpit bears the words: "'Hides ex 
auditu" 

Compton has an elaborately carved early Jacobean pulpit 
with tester, as well as various other fittings of the same date, 
including a screen now foolishly moved to the west end. The 
octagonal pulpit of Ewhurst is a good example of early Jacobean 
with two stages of panelling. Woking has a good pulpit dated 
1673. The Newdigate example is of Charles I.'s reign, and is 
dated 1637. The upper part of the hexagonal pulpit of St 
Leonard, Streatham, is Carolean (c. 1640), and is richly carved 
after a classical fashion. In the upper panel on the south-west 
side are the arms of Rowland impaling Suzan, and above the 
shield are two crests and mantling. Sir John Rowland, of the 
manor of Tooting Bee, in this parish, married Cecily Suzan ; they 
sold the manor in 1648. The Commonwealth pulpit of Chaldon 
is a good piece of work, inscribed "Patience Lambert, 1657." 
Patience was the widow of William Lambert, of Tollesworth 
Manor, whose grave slab is in the nave ; he died in 1656. The 
cornice shelf is supported by iron brackets. 

Gatton church has a certain celebrity on account of the 
considerable amount of continental woodwork gathered together 
and placed here about 1834. The pulpit came from Nuremberg, 
and is boldly carved with the Descent from the Cross in three 
panels. 

SUSSEX possesses two examples of Elizabethan date, namely, 
at Worth and Newtimber, the latter late in the sixteenth 
century. The elaborate pulpit at Worth, dated 1577, has 
classical columns at the angles of both pulpit and its base, 
whilst the panels have niched figures of the Evangelists, and 
the frieze above has a Dutch inscription. Kington-on-Sea is 
early Jacobean, dated 1608, and Wilmington is of much the 
same date. Arlington, Botolphs, Buxted, West Chiltington, 
Poynings, Rotherfield, Southwick, Tortington, and Twineham 
are all undated oak pulpits of the seventeenth century, more 
or less vaguely termed Jacobean. The pulpit of St Anne, 
Lewes, is handsomely carved, and bears this inscription : 
" Harbar Springat Gentelman made this pulpit in the yeare 
of our Lord 1620." Herbert Springett, the younger brother of 

1 Viet. County Hist, of Sttrrey, iii. 460. 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 14! 

Sir Thomas Springett, was a lawyer of some eminence ; he died 
in 1621. The East Dean pulpit is dated 1624. Lamberhurst 
is undoubtedly Carolean, for it bears the year 1630. 

WARWICKSHIRE has two dated Jacobean pulpits, namely 
Bourton-on-Dunsmore, 1607, and Salford Priors, 1616. There 
are also two of the Carolean period, namely Butlers Marston, 

1632, and Willoughby. 

WESTMORELAND. At Burton-in-Kendal both pulpit and 
reading board are well carved and bear the date 1607. The 
pulpit at Kirkby Lonsdale is dated 1612. The little church of 
Martindale was rebuilt on the site of a much older fabric in 

1633. The well carved but simple pulpit is dated 1634, and 
other Carolean fittings remain. 

WILTSHIRE has a few good pulpits of sixteenth and 
seventeenth century date. 

Odstock has a famous if not notorious Elizabethan pulpit, 
on which appears the equivocal distich : 

" God bless our royal Queen, 
The lyke on earth was never seen." 

Another pulpit of some celebrity is in the small church of 
Monkton Farleigh ; it is of either late Elizabethan or quite 
early Jacobean date. The manor used to pertain to the 
bishopric of Sarum, and here Bishop Jewel not infrequently 
retired, where he doubtless made use of this pulpit. He 
died here in 1571, shortly after preaching his last sermon in the 
neighbouring church of Lacock. The pulpit is inscribed with 
the following text : " Blessed are tliey yt heare ye word of God 
and kepe it" 

Edington has an exceptional pulpit, which Mr Gotch aptly 
describes as " simple and elegant " ; it stands on a stout post, 
from the upper part of which supporting brackets project. 1 

The finest example of a Jacobean pulpit in the county 
occurs at Stratford-sub-Castle. It is of hexagonal plan, and 
delicately carved throughout ; the panels have upper square 
compartments filled with conventional designs, whilst below 
them are larger round-headed arcades, with jambs formed of 
a series of bosses ; the standard or backpiece is of similar 
designs to the panels, and carries a hexagonal canopy delight- 
fully carved, and having a large centre pendant, and smaller 
ones at the angles. Close at hand, affixed to the wall-plate of 
the chancel, is the hour glass and stand (131). There is a good 
Jacobean pulpit at Durnford, dated 1619. At Brinkworth is 

1 Early Renaissance in England^. 221, with plate of measured drawings. 



142 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



another of these pulpits with a sounding-board, and a further 
example at Paulshot. At Winterbourne Basset there are 
fifteen good Jacobean pews, and a pulpit which is a striking 
example of what Mr Ponting terms the " Anglo-Italian Re- 
naissance " ; it has large panels with carved borders, and the 




F. R. 



Lynn St Margaret 



door remains ; there are two similar panels on the reading desk. 
The work might almost be taken for Elizabethan, but on part 
of the tracery of one panel is the date 1611, with the initials 
" G. A." 

Clyffe Pypard has an exceptionally fine instance of a pulpit 
of the time of the Laudian revival, with sounding-board ; it is 
inscribed: "Ex dono Joanis Kingston Gen, Anno Doi, 1627"; 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 143 

attached to it is a projecting gridiron desk with two iron 
brackets, a most exceptional feature. 1 At Boscombe there is 
another Carolean pulpit dated 1633 5 the sounding-board is 
later. 

Monkton Deverill pulpit has four panels quaintly carved 
with (i) Adam in deep sleep; (2) the Woman formed from his 
rib ; (3) the Temptation at the Tree of Knowledge ; and (4) 
the Expulsion of Adam and Eve out of Eden. They do not 
seem to have been originally intended for a pulpit ; they appear 
to be rather late in the seventeenth century. The panels of the 
pulpit at Bishopstone are of early wood carving, bronzed ; they 
were brought here from Spain. The church of Furley was 
rebuilt throughout in 1688. The good coeval fittings of the 
chancel were of much interest ; but an unhappy restoration of 
1874 played much mischief, and the pulpit lost its sounding-board. 

WORCESTERSHIRE has several interesting post- Reformation 
pulpits. There is a fine octagonal Jacobean pulpit at Bel- 
broughton with arcaded panels ; above these is a cornice of 
carved dragons, whilst grotesque corbels support the projecting 
book-board. The Jacobean pulpit of Tredington, with back- 
piece and tester, is a good example ; the panels have two tiers 
of arcading. At Suckley the tester of the pulpit bears the text : 
" Blessed are they that hear the Word of God and keepe it" 

Broadwas is a fair instance of an octagonal Carolean pulpit. 
The two tiers of panels are well carved, and above them is 
inscribed: "Anno Dom 1632 William Noxon, Robert Prince, 
Churchwardens? On the tester is the same text, similarly spelt, 
which appears at Suckley. Stoke Bliss has a pulpit and sound- 
ing-board dated 1635. There is a Commonwealth example at 
Teddington, where the pulpit, with sounding-board, is dated 
1653. The pulpit of St Swithun, Worcester, is richly carved, 
and has a sounding-board surmounted by a pelican in her piety. 

YORKSHIRE possesses a good many interesting pulpits of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

The most interesting of all the Elizabethan pulpits in its 
associations, though of somewhat clumsy and probably local 
carving, is that of Marr, near Doncaster. It has a coat of 
arms and the initials " C.B." These stand for Christopher Barker, 
printer to Queen Elizabeth. He was born at Marr vicarage in 
1529, and died in 1599. Dodsworth tells us that he "made the 
best pewes in the church, pavyd the allyes, and builded the 
pulpitt." 

1 There are three plates of this pulpit and desk in the Wilts. Arch. Soc. 
Mag.) vol. xxxvii. 



144 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

The pulpit of Braithwell (W.R.) bears the following long 
inscription in incised letters filled in with some composition ; 
it is dated 1574 : " Blessed is God in al his gift es and holy in al 
his ivorkes. Your helpe is in the name oftJie Lorde ivlw hath made 
both heaven and earth. Blessed be tlie name of the Lord from 
henceforth world without ende. Amen?' 

At Hutton Rudby (N.R.) there is a most unusual Elizabethan 
pulpit, the panels of which are inlaid with English marquetry. 
It was the gift of Thomas Milner, who died in 1594, and bears 
his arms. 

There are various dated Jacobean pulpits, three of them in 
the East Riding, namely Patrington 1612, Rous 1613, and 
Swine 1619. Swine is an excellent characteristic example, in 
good preservation. Dent (W.R.) is also dated 1614. Among 
the undated Jacobean pulpits special mention may be made of 
Leconfield, Walkington, and Kilnwick-on-the-Wolds of the East 
Riding, Kirklington, Marrick Priory, Oswaldkirk, and Stonegrave 
of the North Riding, and of Long Preston, Arksey (with 
sounding-board), Woodkirk, and Wistow of the West Riding. 
The Jacobean pulpit in the nave of Ripon has a curious shell 
sounding-board. The Jacobean pulpit of Bolton Priory has 
been turned into a reading desk. The fine Perpendicular church 
of Rotherham has a very handsome Jacobean pulpit, with a 
later sounding-board. 

The pulpit of Aldborough (W.R.) is a composite affair, but 
includes several sixteenth-century panels. Surmounting the 
pulpit is a canopy bearing the words, " Pasce oves pasce agnos" 

There are some remarkably good examples of Carolean date. 
The justly celebrated and much esteemed church of St John's, 
Leeds, erected in 1631-34, includes amongst its sumptuous fittings 
a noble pulpit, with a sounding-board, on the north side of the 
nave. At Crayke (N.R.) there is a distinctly beautiful pulpit, 
with sounding-board, dated 1637, and inscribed : " Shew me thy 
waes, O Lord, and teach me thy paths? At Huntington (N.R.) 
there is a magnificent old pulpit, probably Carolean, with 
arabesque work : round the base runs the inscription : " Where 
there is no vision the people perish, Prov. xix. 18." Alne (W.R.) 
has the earliest dated pulpit of this reign, 1625. Halsham (E.R.) 
is dated 1634. This, too, is the date of the remarkable and 
elaborate pulpit of All Saints, Pavement, York, which was 
moved here from St Crux on the coalition of that parish with 
All Saints in 1885. It is hexagonal in plan and has a good 
canopy, both richly carved ; below the cornice of the pulpit is 
inscribed part of 2 Tim. iv. 2 ; and on the soffit of the canopy 
part of i Cor. i. 21. The panels of the pulpit with cinquefoil 



POST-REFORMATION PULPITS 



145 




A. B. 



St Clement Danes, London 



146 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

tracery heads, and the slight buttresses which divide them, are 
debased imitation of Gothic treatment (104). The pulpit of 
St Martin's, Middlegate, is almost identical and bears the same 
text, but there is no canopy. When Allen wrote his History of 
York, in 1829, there was a "sounding-board." 

As to post-Restoration pulpits, Giggleswick (W.R.) has a fine 
example with sounding-board, marked " G.W. 1680." George 
Winskip was patron of the living. Carlton Husthwaite (E.R.) 
has a pulpit with sounding-board, dated 1678, and inscribed 
' Feed my Lambes? Winestead (E.R.), with a sounding-board, 
is late seventeenth -century. Wintringham (E.R.) has a re- 
markably interesting pulpit, with coeval reading desk, pews, alms- 
box, and old altar table, all probably of the year 1685. 
Brodsworth (W.R.) pulpit is dated 1696; it is enriched with 
foliage and cherubs' heads. 



147 



CHAPTER Vl| 
HOUR GLASSES 

THE hour glass, sand glass, or sermon glass came into general 
use in the Church of England in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, for the purpose of regulating the length of the 
discourse. Hence it was commonly attached to the pulpit or to 
the adjacent wall, within easy reach of the preacher. A good 
many hour-glass stands, as well as the glasses themselves, were 
destroyed during the heedless restoration of the earlier Victorian 
period. Nevertheless, the subjoined list shows that there are 
about a hundred stands still surviving, as well as at least a dozen 
of the actual glasses, though in the latter case two or three of 
them are modern reproductions. It is a mistake to suppose 
that their use was brought in by either the Reformers or the 
Puritans. In Allen's History of Lambeth it is stated that when 
a new pulpit was introduced into the parish church in 1522 an 
hour glass was attached. In the churchwardens' accounts of 
that parish there are two subsequent references to this time 
measurer; in 1579 is. 4d. was paid "for the frame in which the 
hower standeth," and in 1615 6s. 8d. was "payd for an iron for 
the hour glass." 

The frontispiece of the " Bishop's Bible," of 1 569, represents 
Archbishop Parker with an hour glass on his right hand. 
Holbein on two occasions introduced pulpit hour glasses into 
his paintings, and Hogarth, at a much later date, in his " Sleeping 
Congregation," placed the sand glass on the left-hand side of the 
preacher. Old parish accounts prove how common was their 
church use in the days of Elizabeth, and that they prevailed 
with still greater frequency in the first half of the seventeenth 
century. With the Restoration the custom began to wane, but 
as late as the close of the century new hour glasses, or frames 
for them, were occasionally purchased, especially in town 
churches. 

An early Elizabethan instance of the purchase of an hour 
glass occurs in the parish accounts of St Peter Cheap for 1 563, 



148 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 




s. c. 



NOTE. I. Kirkwall. 2. Creeling All Saints, Suffolk. 3. Odell, Beds. 4. East 
Stonham, Suffolk. 5. Luther's pocket hour glass. 

when it cost a shilling, which was a stiff price for those days ; 
a like sum was given for a successor in the following year. The 
accounts for the same city parish, under 1584, have the following 
entries : 

Payde for the hower glasse the xxij th of October - xij d. 

Payde the same daie to the Turner for the foote for hower 
glasse to stand uppon - - xij d. 



HOUR GLASSES 



149 





C. F. N. 

Wiggenhall St Mary, Norfolk 



c. F. N. 



Bloxworth, Dorset 



The following extracts are taken from a score or two of 
entries elsewhere during the same reign : 

1561 (All Hallows, Staining). An houre glasse xij d. 

A deske to sett the hower glasse on the pulpitt - x d. 
1572 (Barnstaple). Paid to John Blackmore for hour glass 

for the Preacher 4d. 

1575 (St Martin^ Leicester}. Payd for an houre glase iiij d. 
1598 \Ludlow). For makinge of the frame for the houre 

glasse xx d. 

For oyling and coloringe yt ij d. 

The following must serve as specimens of the hundreds that 
could be supplied from seventeenth-century accounts: 



ISO PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

1612 (St Edmund, Sarum). Makeinge the foote to holde 

the hower glasse standing on the Pulpitt i 2d. 

An Hower glasse and the Cadge to sett him on i4d. 

1622-23. Frame for the Oure glasse standinge uppon the Byble 

deske 35. 2d. 

1648-49. An Houre glasse 8d. 

1611 (Berkhampstead). Payed for an hour glasse x d. 

Payed for the Irone that the houre glasse standeth in xviij d. 
1629 (St Mary, Devizes}. Pd. to John Bennett, Cutler, 
for a branch to carry the hour glass in the 
church - ij s. vj d. 

1673-74. (St Edmund, Sarum). Frame for the Ower glasse 

standinge upon the Byble deske 3s. 2d. 

1672 (Prestbury^ Cheshire]. Pd. for the Houre Glasse, 
Houre Glasse Case, and the guildinge and the 
setting upp the same - -170 

A further proof of the more frequent use of church hour 
glasses in the seventeenth century is the general fall in their 
price as compared with Elizabethan accounts. An hour glass 
at Seal cost 8d. in 1639; one at Bletchingley (where the stand 
is preserved) /d. in 1643 ; one at Chippenham /d. in 1657 ; 
whilst at Church Pulverbatch the hour glass of 1653 cost I2d., 
and another in 1683, gd. 

An entry in the parish book of St Katharine, Aldgate, under 
1 564, is worth citing to show that sand glasses to guide the 
preacher were then a novelty, otherwise the scribe would not 
have thought it worth while to explain its purpose. 

Payde for an houre glasse that hangeth by the pulpitt 
where the preacher dothe make a sermon, that 
he may knowe how the houre passeth awaye xij d 

It is a mistake to suppose that their use was confined to 
Protestants. This is illustrated in a tract called Fatal Vespers 
relative to an incident that occurred at a gathering of Papists 
at Blackfriars in 1623: "About three o'clock the expected 
preacher came in ... attended by a man that brought after 
him his book and hour glass." 

Regulation of the length of sermons seems sometimes to 
have been badly needed. The author of a tract of 1648, entitled 
Independancy stript and whipt, observes that " the Independents 
could pray, or rather prate by the spirit, two hours at least 
against the state." In the frontispiece of England s Shame ; 
or, A Relation of the Life and Death of Hugh Peters, 1663, that 
worthy is represented holding an hour glass in his left hand, 



HOUR GLASSES 





152 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

and in the act of saying, " I know you are good fellows ; so let's 
have another glass." 

Churchmen were no better ; a tall story is told of Dr Isaac 
Brown to the effect that, when preaching before the Lord 
Mayor and Corporation on charity, he continued for three hours 
and a half, and that at the end the congregation had dwindled 
to a single apprentice ! More credible stories as to long- 
winded pulpit eloquence could easily be adduced ; it was not, 
however, very long sermons to which the laity of those days 
objected, but those that were both long and poor. For instance, 
Macaulay tells us of Burner., Bishop of Salisbury, that " he was 
often interrupted by the deep hum of his audience ; and when, 
after preaching out the hour glass, he held it in his hands, the 
congregation clamorously encouraged him to go on till the 
sand had run off once more." 

It need not, however, be supposed from the frequency with 
which pulpits were supplied with hour glasses, that the sixteenth 
and seventeenth century sermons were necessarily to be of 
an hour's duration. It can readily be proved from the length 
of some of those which have been printed that they could not 
have lasted longer than half an hour or twenty minutes. The 
sand glass of sixty minutes was probably regarded as a limit 
beyond which no self-respecting preacher could expect to retain 
his hearers' attention. " The parson," says George Herbert, 
" exceeds not an hour in preaching, because all ages have 
thought that a competency, and he that profits not in that time 
will belike afterwards, the same affections which made him not 
to profit before making him then weary, and so he grows from 
not relishing to loathing." 

In fact, the church sand glass was not always confined to 
the orthodox hour. In 1632 the wardens of All Saints, New- 
castle-on-Tyne, purchased " one whole hour-glasse and one halfe- 
hour-glasse." At Pleasley, in Derbyshire, a half-hour glass 
was bought in 1637 for 8d., and a similar one for St John's, 
Southampton, in 1634. In the parish chest of East Stonham, 
Suffolk, a case was found containing three sand glasses timed 
to run respectively for an hour, for thirty minutes, and for 
fifteen minutes (148). Coming down to modern times, it is 
stated that an eighteen-minute sand glass was provided for the 
Chapel Royal in the Savoy, as an expression of Queen Victoria's 
rooted objection to long sermons. 

The constructors of hour glasses were not always careful in 
their sand measurements. An old hour glass, which used to be 
in an East Anglian pulpit, has been repeatedly tested and always 
chronicles forty-eight minutes. 



HOUR GLASSES 



153 




W. M. 



Binfield, Berkshire 



20 



154 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

The glass is fixed between two thin wooden discs, held 
together by slender turned shafts, usually four in number, as at 
Burlingham, Stoke-sub-Hamdon, or Hurst. The average height 
is nine inches. 

The hour glass was occasionally supported by an upright 
iron bar affixed to the side of the pulpit, and terminating in 
a more or less ornamental circular holder with a raised rim of 
ironwork within which rested the glass and frame (158). At St 
Michael's, St Albans, there is a beautiful and ornate support 
of this character, and one of a far simpler nature at Wiggenhall 
St Mary, Norfolk (149). See also the illustration of the one on 
the fine early Jacobean pulpit of Wiggenhall St Germans, and 
the straight iron supports of the one at Bloxworth, Dorset (156, 
149). The more usual method was to attach an iron bracket to 
the pulpit, or occasionally to the adjacent wall, and on some of 
these supports considerable skill in ironwork was sometimes 
expended. Perhaps the most ingenious of these brackets is the 
one attached to the pulpit of Compton Bassett, Wilts. ; a large 
fleur-de-lis rises from the centre of the iron bar, which serves as 
a handle to enable the preacher to reverse the glass and stand ; 
it will be noticed in the illustration that each end of the iron- 
work frame is treated after a similar ornamental fashion (151). 

The most elaborate and intricate ironwork connected with 
an hour-glass bracket occurs at Binfield, Berks., attached to a 
pulpit dated 1625 ; it is painted and enriched with numerous 
small branches of oak leaves and acorns, some of which support 
the arms of the Farriers and of the Smiths ; there is also the 
legend, " Watch and pray that ye enter not into temptation "(15 3). 
In the same county at Hurst there is another ornate instance 
of hour-glass ironwork with sprigs of oak leaves and acorns, 
painted and gilded, with date I636. 1 But in this instance the 
stand, though close to the pulpit, is attached to the adjacent 
pillar. Affixed to the pillar is also a scroll inscribed : 

" As this glasse runneth, 
So man's life pas sethe" 

The ironwork of the bracket at Salhouse, Norfolk, though 
simpler, is also of considerable grace. 

Pilton, North Devon, has a unique hour-glass support springing 
out from its fifteenth-century stone pulpit ; it assumes the form of 
a man's arm cut out of sheet iron and gilded (13). It is said that 
there used to be a similar arm at Tavistock, North Devon. At 
Cliffe, on the Kentish coast, there is a pulpit dated 1634, but there 

1 It is engraved in Shaw's work on Dress and Decoration. 



HOUR GLASSES 



155 




\V. M. 



Hurst, Berkshire 



5 6 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 





HOUR GLASSES 



157 



is attached to it a wooden bracket with low hour-glass, stand which 
bears upon a shield in front the year 1636. At Stoke D'Abernon, 
Surrey, there is some fine scrolled ironwork supporting the 
squared hour-glass stand. The ironwork around the hour 
glass of St John Baptist, Bristol, is an exceptionally fine bit 
of smith's craftsmanship (151). Other good work is at Cowden, 
Kent. 

Edingthorpe, Norfolk, and Chelvey, Somerset, have simple 





P. B. B. 



Chelvey, Somerset 



Cowden, Kent 



iron brackets attached to the pulpit, whilst those of Chilton, 
Bucks., and Puxton, Somerset, cling to the walls (158). 

This is not the place wherein to dilate on the history of sand 
glasses as measurers of time apart from their use in church, but 
it may be well to briefly chronicle a few facts. The ancient 
astronomers made use of them in their observations of stars and 
planets. They are said to have been in use in the days of 
St Jerome (331-420). A mediaeval time glass is represented in a 
picture of St Jerome painted by Antonio del Fiore in 1436. The 
sand glass was frequently used in measuring the " log " or speed 
of a ship from the early seventeenth century to well on in the 



158 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

last century. It was at last abandoned for this purpose on 
account of its inaccuracy, the sand being much affected by 
dampness or change of climate. Small sand glasses were 
frequently carried by Edinburgh doctors late in the eighteenth 
century for measuring the pulse of their patients. In at least one 
instance, in Cornwall, the pulpit hour glass was removed to the 
parsonage kitchen to aid in regulating the baking of meats, and 
its kitchen use still survives in the three-and-a-half minute glass 
for the orthodox boiling of eggs. 





Chilton, Bucks. 



St Michael's, St Albans 



By a natural symbolism the hour glass became the symbol 
of time. Sir Thomas More makes Time declare : " I whom 
thou seest, with horologe in hand, am named Time, the lord 
of every hour." The hour glass was a favourite emblem, as is 
shown by its being sculptured on hundreds of gravestones and 
monuments of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Strange 
to say, it appears as the sign of two public houses in Walworth 
and Upper Thames Street. 

The poets have not failed to add the hour glass to their 
imagery. It is not only mentioned by Shakespeare in the 
"Merchant of Venice" and in the prologue to "Henry V.," 



HOUR GLASSES 



159 



but Gay's pastoral lover of a much later date prettily 
sings : 

" He said that heaven would take her soul no doubt, 
And spoke the hour glass in her praise right out" ; 

whilst Dryden, in striking lines, writes : 

" Shake not his hour glass, when his hasty sand 
Is ebbing to the last." 




Yaxley, Suffolk 

The use of the sand glass in the pulpit and elsewhere was 
doubtless dispelled by the multiplicity and cheapness of effective 
watches. As to the measuring of time within churches, prior 
to the introduction of the hour glass, it should be remembered 
that the mediaeval use of clocks with dials, inside the churches, 
can be shown to have been of common and early occurrence ; 
outer dials on the towers were of later introduction. 1 

1 Cox's Churchwardens* Accounts, pp. 228-31. 



i6o 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



A LIST OF EXTANT HOUR-GLASS STANDS 



St Albans, St Michael 
Alvescote, Oxon. 
Amberley, Sussex 
Ashby-Folville, Leicestershire 
Barnadiston, Suffolk 
Baltonsborough, Somerset 
Barningham Norwood, Norfolk 
Bassenthwaite, Cumberland 
Beckley, Oxon. 
Belton, Lincolnshire 
Billingford, Norfolk 
Binfield, Berks. 
Bishampton, Worcestershire 
Bledington, Gloucestershire 
Bletchingley, Surrey 
Bloxworth (glass). Dorset 
Boarhurst, Hants 
Boultham, Lines, (glass) 
Bracebridge, Lines. 
Bradeston, Norfolk 
Bristol, St John Baptist (glass) 
Brooke, Norfolk 
Burlingham St Edmund, Norfolk 

(broken glass) 
Bygrave, Herts. 
Capel, Surrey 
Catfield, Norfolk 
Chelney, Somerset 
Chesham Bois, Bucks. 
Chilton, Bucks. 
Cliffe, Kent, 1636 
Cowden, Kent (glass) 
Compton Bassett, Wilts, (glass) 
Easthope, Salop (glass) 
East Langdon, Kent 
Edingthorpe, Norfolk 
Edlesborough, Bucks. 
Grately, Hants 

Great Doddington, Northants 
Hameringham, Lines. 
Ham moon, Dorset (glass) 
Henley, Oxon. 
Houghton, Sussex 
Hurst, Bucks., 1636 
Ingatestone, Essex 
Inglesham, Wilts 



Ingworth, Norfolk 
Ivinghoe, Bucks. 
Kedington, Suffolk 
Keyingham, East Riding, Yorks. 
Langley, East, Kent 
Leasingham, Lines. 
Leigh, Kent 
Lessingham, Norfolk 
Ledham, Norfolk 
Lezant, Cornwall 
Loddington, Northants 
London St Alban's, Wood St. 

(glass) 

Longparish, Hants (glass) 
Lower Gravenhurst, Beds. 
Marlingford, Norfolk (glass) 
Merton, Norfolk 
Nassington, Northants 
Noke, Oxon. 

Norton Subcourse, Norfolk 
Norwich, St Mary Coslaney 

(glass) 

Oddingley, Worcester 
Odell, Beds. 
Offenham, Worcester 
Pilton, Devon (glass) 
Pitney, Somerset 
Polebrook, Northants 
Puxton, Somerset 
Rudford, Gloucester 
Rushton, Northants 
Sacombe, Herts., in vestry 
Salhouse, Norfolk 
Sandford St Martin, Oxon. 
Sapperton, Lines. 
Scalby, North Riding, Yorks. 
Selworthy, Somerset 
Shelsley Beauchamp, Worcester 
Shorwell, Isle of Wight (glass) 
Shouldham, Norfolk 
. Stalham, Norfolk 
Stifford, Essex, 1611 
Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey 
Stoke-sub-Hamdon, Somerset 

(glass) 
Strixton, Northants 



HOUR GLASSES l6l 

Sutton, Norfolk Wiggenhall St Germans (glass) 

Taynton, Gloucester Wiggenhall St Mary, Norfolk 

Thurlton, Norfolk Wisley, Surrey 

Tytherleye, Beds. Wolvercot, Oxon. 

Walpole St Andrew, Norfolk Wyverstone, Suffolk (hour glass 

Warburton, Cheshire only) 

Warnham, Sussex Yarmouth, Isle of Wight (glass) 

Weston Favell, Northants Yaxley, Suffolk (glass) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cox, J. CHARLES, Church Furniture (1907), 156-59. 

,, ,, Churchwardens' Accounts (1913), 132-33. 

CHAMBERS' Book of Days, vol. ii. pp. 713-15. 
FAIRHOLT, F. W., in British Arch. Assoc., iii. 301. 
CUMING, H. SYER, in British Arch. Assoc. } xxix. 130. 
ALLEN, J. ROMILLY, in Cutts' Dictionary of the Church of England, 

33- 

BLOXAM, M. H., in Gothic Architecture, iii. 132. 
ANDREWS, W., Curiosities of the Church, 100. 
PARKER'S Glossary, Text, p. 255. 



21 



162 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 




F. H. C. 



Monksilver, Somerset 



i6 3 



CHAPTER VIII 
LECTERNS OF BRASS AND STONE 

IN the Early Christian churches a conspicuous feature of the 
choir was the marble ambo or ambos ; many ancient examples 
remain at Rome, Ravenna, and elsewhere. Even in mediaeval 
churches these ambos or elevated desks were sometimes re- 
tained ; e.g., in Perugia, Italy ; and in Zamora, Seville, and 
Toledo, Spain, where they are still used for singing the epistle 
and gospel. Far more often the big marble ambo dwindled 
down to a lectern or book- rest of comparatively moderate 
dimensions, taking the form either of a simple desk or of an 
eagle or pelican with expanded wings on a pedestal. Till the 
Reformation, the lectern of English churches retained its 
original and proper position in the choir. Afterwards, when 
it was employed to carry a Bible, it was moved in the smaller 
churches from the choir to the east end of the nave. A curious 
transitional treatment may be seen in some Devonshire churches, 
e.g., Lapford and Swimbridge, where the oak eagle lectern 
remains in the choir, but the mullions of the screen are cut 
away so as to leave a square aperture through which the reader's 
voice reaches the congregation in the nave. Careful scrutiny 
of old rood-screens in village churches will occasionally show 
that there has been similar treatment up and down the country, 
whereby the expense of either a reading desk or a lectern was 
saved, a simple book-rest being attached to the opening in the 
screen. There are those living who can recollect this being the 
arrangement on the south side of the elaborate Elizabethan 
screen of Holdenby, Northamptonshire, previous to its 
mutilation. 1 With this may be compared the arrangement at 
Monksilver, Somerset (162). 

The greater mediaeval churches possessed several lecterns ; 

1 This was first pointed out to me by Mr Micklethwaite, and on inquiry 
of some of the older inhabitants this surmise was amply confirmed. 



164 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 




F. H. C. 



Wolborough, Devon 



LECTERNS OF BRASS AND STONE 165 

those of Durham are fully described in the often cited Rites of 
Durham : 

" At the north end of the High Altar there was a goodly fine Letteron 
of brass . . . with a gilt pelican on the top of it, finely gilded, pulling 
her blood out her breast to her young ones, and wings spread abroad, 
whereon did lie the book that they did sing the epistle and the gospel. 
It was thought to be the goodliest letteron of brass that was in all this 
country. Also there was low down in the quire another Letteron of 
brass, not so curiously wrought, standing in the midst, against the stalls, 
a marvellous fair one, with an Eagle on the height of it, and her wings 
spread abroad, whereon the monks did lay their books, when they sung 
their legends at mattins or at other times of service." 

The inventories of King's College, Aberdeen, include three 
brass lecterns ; u unus pro evangelio cantando ; alter pro epistola ; 
et tertius pro legenda" The inventories of several other large 
churches, such as Great St Mary, Cambridge, make mention 
of two or more lecterns, though not so nicely defining their 
objects as at Aberdeen. 

As formerly at Durham, so still in Norwich Cathedral, the 
brass lectern, of late Decorated character, c. 1375, is surmounted 
by a pelican in her piety ; round the shaft which supports it, 
rising from the base, are three small figures (bishop, priest, and 
deacon), which by no means improve its appearance ; they were 
added as recently as 1845. A pelican lectern in oak also occurs 
at Middleton, Hants. 

The eagle, however, was the favourite choice right through 
the Middle Ages, as an emblem wherewith to crown the lectern 
used for gospel-reading purposes. Some of the Fathers regarded 
it as typical of the resurrection (Ps. ciii. 5) ; but the eagle is 
the special symbol of St John the Divine, as it soars up heaven- 
ward to the sun, for the Evangelist dwells specially in his 
Gospel and the Revelation on the divine discourses and on the 
glory of the Sun of Righteousness. Strange to say, it did not 
excite the ire of ignorant vandal Protestants, as did the sight 
of cross or crucifix, and when the monks flung their valuable 
brass eagles into the nearest pond, as they did in several 
instances, it was for the righteous object of cheating the covetous 
king's looting commissioners of some of their spoil, and not 
through fear of their being mutilated or destroyed. There was 
a revival of their use in the seventeenth century, but more 
especially after the Restoration of Church and king. The 
extant eagles are chiefly of the fifteenth and early sixteenth 
centuries ; the earlier ones, except a few of the fourteenth 
century, whether of metal or wood, seem to have perished. At 
Salisbury in 1214 there was " tuellia una ad lectricnm aquila" 



1 66 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



In the Luttrell Psalter, written c. 1300, an eagle lectern is 
represented. The third dressing of the Islip Roll, 1366, the 
eagle lectern, from which the gospel was read, is shown on the 
north of the altar. 

The finely worked brass eagle at Southwell Minster was 
presented to the church in 1805 by Sir Richard Kay, Prebendary 
of Durham, and subsequently Dean of Durham. It is inscribed : 




Oundle 

" Orate pro ana Radulphi Savage et pro ' am" 1 abus Own ' 
Fidelium Defunctorum." It originally belonged to Newstead 
Priory. At the Dissolution, the canons concealed some 
documents inside the ball on which the eagle stands, and threw 
it into the adjacent lake or pool. Thence it was dredged in 
the eighteenth century, and passed into the hands of a 
Nottingham dealer. In Washington Irving's account of his visit 
to Newstead, it is stated that one of the documents was "a 
plenary pardon assured in advance for all kinds of crimes," 



LECTERNS OF BRASS AND STONE 167 

It is scarcely necessary to say that it was nothing of the kind, 
but was simply a royal general pardon by Henry V. of a usual 
kind to raise money for the French war. 

Another fine brass eagle which pretty closely resembles the 
one at Southwell is in the Cambridgeshire church of Isleham. 
There have been a number of more or less vague stories afloat 
as to this lectern having been flung into a pond, or swamp of 
the fens, and thence rescued, but the version given in Highways 
and Byways of Cambridgeshire (1910) as to its having been dug 
up "some half-century ago between Isleham and Soham," and 
that both parishes lay claim to it, can be readily disproved. We 
see no reason to doubt that this eagle is the " one lecturne of 
lattyn " entered as part of the church goods of Isleham by 
Edward VI.'s commissioners, and that it was flung into some 
adjacent water or swamp to hide it from the avaricious agents 
of the youthful king's Council. Edward VI. went one better 
than his father, Henry VIII., who pillaged the monasteries ; it was 
reserved for his son to pillage the parish churches. The Isleham 
eagle has, on a moulding of the ball which supports the bird, a 
diminutive shield of arms, and what looks at first sight like a 
brief scroll inscription ; but it is far too much rubbed to be easily 
deciphered. The coat of arms has at present eluded all 
attempts at identification. It bears that commonest of all charges, 
a chevron, apparently between three sets of five bezants or 
roundles, and the apparent " inscription " resolves itself into 
little groups of tiny roundels. 1 

Peterborough Cathedral has a fine specimen of late fifteenth- 
century work in the brass eagle lectern given by Abbot William 
Ramsey (1471-96) and Prior Maiden. There are the remains 
of an inscription, which when perfect (Gunton's History] ran : 

" Haec tibi lectrina dant petre metallica bina 
Jokes Maldon prior et Wills de Ramiseya. " 

The chief feature of St Gregory's, Norwich, is the fifteenth- 
century brass eagle which bears the inscription : " Orate pro 
animabus Willim Welbrok Rose et Joke uxor' ejus, A. Dni 
MCCCCLXXXX F7." 

In some other cases inscriptions add to the interest in these 
imperishable lecterns. The brass eagle of St Stephen's, 
St Albans, bears the inscription : " Georgius Creightown Episcopus 
Dunkeldensis" It formed part of the plunder of Holyrood, and 
was brought here by Sir Richard Lee. George, Bishop of 
Dunkeld, ruled from 1527-30. 

1 We have to thank the vicar, the Rev. H. Wilson Robinson, for sending 
us a rubbing of the shield. 



1 68 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



At Oxburgh church, Norfolk, is a fine brass eagle, six feet 
high, with the base supported by the usual three lions. 
Blomfield gives the inscription : " Orate pro anima Thome Kyppyng 
quondam tectoris de Narburgh? Thomas Kyppyng was rector of 
Narburgh from 1461 until his death in 1489; he also held a 
chantry at Oxburgh. 

The brass eagle of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, was 
presented by John Claymond, who was president from 1516 to 
1 537. It bears no date, but simply the words, "Joannes Claymond 
Primus Praeses? This eagle, together with all the other ornaments 
and vestments of the chapel, was carefully secreted during the 

reign of Edward VI., but was 
immediately forthcoming on 
the accession of Queen Mary, 
and all were in their place 
when it was visited by Bishop 
Gardiner. 

One of the most interest- 
ing survivals from the grievous 
midnight fire which destroyed 
the great parish church of 
Croydon on 5th January 1867, 
is the fifteenth-century brass 
lectern eagle. The stem, 
which has been much but 
carefully restored, follows the 
usual plan, being circular with 
bands of projecting mould- 
ings, but the lower part is 
octagonal ; it rests on a 




c. F. N. 



Redenhall, Norfolk 



widely-spread circular base, 
supported on the backs of 
three lions sejant. The stem 

terminates in a sphere surmounted by an eagle with outspread 
wings of the usual conventional type. 

Newton Abbot, Devon, has a good brass eagle, which was 
dug up at Bovey Heathfield, where it had been buried for safety 
during the Commonwealth wars. 

In the comely decking of the small church of Little Gedding, 
Hunts., by Nicholas Ferrar in 1625, we read in his own MS. 
that he provided " a pillar and eagle of brass for the Bible." 

The eagle of the renewed St Paul's is the largest and finest 
in England ; it measures 8 ft. 6 in. in height, and the breadth 
across the wings is 3 ft. 3 in. The maker was Jacob Sutton : 
he was paid for it 24 1. 155. Four years later 477. 6s. was 



LECTERNS OF BRASS AND STONE 



169 




G. G. B. 



Chipping Campden, Gloucester 



22 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

paid for the brass fence round it, together with the desk at 
which two minor canons used to chant the Litany. This great 
lectern stood in the centre of the choir, but in 1871-72, when the 
dome was made available for congregational purposes, it was 
placed to the west of the choir steps, and at a later period 
again moved to the north-eastern pier. It is not only of fine 
design, but is so constructed this is often not so as to be at an 
angle convenient to the reader and not to require a supplementary 
desk. In the St Paul's eagle the treatment is naturalistic ; the 
conventional design of the mediaeval eagles was more often 
followed in later days. In those the plumage was never more 
than distantly and stiffly indicated, even on the wings and tail : 
while the surface of the body was simply scored with leaf-shaped 
lines, to suggest rather than to imitate the small feathers. If 
regarded closely it will be found that the actual eagles of the 
fifteenth century differ slightly in the pose of their heads, in the 
width and outline of their wings, and in the grip and length 
of their talons. The eagle, indeed, of Redenhall, Norfolk, is 
unique, for it is double-headed (168). But in the case of the stems 
or shafts, rising from a circular base supported on three small 
lions, they all follow a similar scheme, being circular, with bands 
of widely projecting mouldings. Several of them have been 
probably cast in the same mould. If the shafts of eagles are 
compared, the distinctions between them are very slight. Even 
that of Chipping Campden, a full century later, follows the same 
plan as that of Bovey Tracey (169). 

St Michael's, Coventry, had a brass eagle sold in 1645 at 
5d. per Ib. for $ 35. 6d. ; it therefore weighed 392 Ibs. The 
neighbouring eagle, a fine example, at Holy Trinity, Coventry, 
had a narrow escape from the like fate. In 1560 there was 
" pd for skouring y d egle & candell stykes lod. & for mending 
of y d egle's tayle i6d." 

The eagle at Southwell has a sufficiently open beak to admit 
of a coin being dropped in, and there is a kind of small trap- 
door under the tail to permit of the withdrawal of the money. 
This is also the case of the eagle at Woolpit, and, we believe, in 
one other instance. This curious contrivance was doubtless 
made for the reception of special offerings, probably on particular 
occasions. Various remarks might be made with regard to 
several of the other old brass eagles, but reasons of space prevent 
any more being given, and we must be content with supplying a 
list of such eagles, amounting to nearly fifty, 1 which we hope is 
very nearly complete and correct. 

1 A recently published ecclesiological dictionary has stated that the old 
brass eagles in English churches are nearly a score in number ! 



LECTERNS OF BRASS AND STONE 



171 




F. H. C. 



Bovey Tracey, Devon 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



BRASS EAGLE LECTERNS, INCLUDING THOSE OF THE 
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 



Bovey Tracey, Devon 

Bristol, St Mary-le-Port, 1683, 
from the Cathedral 

Bristol, St Mary Redcliffe 
St Nicholas 

Canterbury, 1511 

Cavendish, Suffolk 

Chipping Campden, Gloucester- 
shire, 1618 

Clare, Suffolk 

Coventry, Holy Trinity 

Croft, Lincolnshire 

Cropredy, Oxon. 

Croydon, Surrey 

lidenham, Lincolnshire 

Elm, Cambridgeshire 

Little Gidding, Hunts., 1625 

Huish Champfleurs, Somerset 

Isleham, Cambridgeshire 

Lowestoft, Suffolk 

Lynn, St Margaret, Suffolk 
St Nicholas, 

Lincoln Cathedral, 1667 

Newton Abbot, Devon 

Norwich, St Gregory, 1496 



Oxford, Corpus Christi College 
,, Wad ham College, 1641 
Oundle, from Fotheringhay 

College 

Oxburgh, Norfolk 
Peterborough Cathedral, 1472 
Ramsey, Hunts. 
Redenhall, Norfolk 
Salisbury Cathedral, 1719 

St Martin's 
St Albans, St Peter's 

,, St Stephen 
St Paul's, 1 6 

Southampton, St Michael, c. 1450 
Southwell Cathedral 
Long Sutton, Lincolnshire 
Upwell, St Peter's, Norfolk, c. 

1 380 ^ 

Wellington, Salop 
Wells Cathedral, 1660 
Wiggenhall St Mary's, Norfolk 
Wimborne, Dorset, 1633 
Wolborough, Devon 
Woolpit, Suffolk 
York Cathedral, 1686 



There are a few mediaeval brass lecterns, with shafts or 
stems like the eagles, but surmounted by double sloping desks. 

The double-desked brass lectern of Yeovil bears the following 
ungrammatical inscription in four lines : 

" Preribus mmc precor cermds 

hinc eya rogate 
Fraler Martinus Forester 
vita vigilet que beate." 

The lettering seems to be c. I4OO. 3 On each side is the 
demi effigy of a man. The lectern in Eton College chapel 
of latten has a double book -desk with pierced cusped circles 
containing shields with the arms of Eton ; and it is also engraved 

1 Arch. Assoc. Sketch Book, 1880. 

2 Arch. Assoc. Sketch Book, 1891. 

3 Journ. Arch. Assoc., ix. 75, 76. 



LECTERNS OF BRASS AND STONE 



173 



with the Evangelistic symbols. The circular stem, with 
moulded necking and capital, terminates in a heavily moulded 
circular base supported on four small lions. The date is 

c. 1475 (I74> 

The beautiful brass lectern in the centre of the choir of 




Eton College Chapel 

King's College chapel, Cambridge, was given by Provost 
Hacomblen (1509-28); it is surmounted by a brass statuette of 
King Henry VI., who laid the foundation of the chapel in 1446. 
In the chapel of Merton College, Oxford, is a beautifully 
finished double-desked brass lectern, the gift of John Martock, 
fellow. He formally bequeathed it, with other benefactions, by will 
of 1503, but it had been in the chapel for many years previously. 



174 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



It bears the inscription, " Orate pro anima magistri Johannis 
Martok" The dolphin of Fitzjames occurs on each side. 
Richard Fitzjames was warden from 1483 to 1507. Here, as at 
Yeovil, the widened circular base of the shaft rests on four small 
lions. 

The lectern of Wells Cathedral, which stands near the pulpit 
on the north side of the nave, is a massive double desk of brass 




Eton College Chapel 



surmounted by ornamental work, including the arms of the see. 
It rests upon a ball, and turned stem and base, all of brass. 
Bishop Creyghton (1670-72), made dean in 1660, inscribed his 
arms and this legend on each desk : " Dr Robert Creyghton, upon 
his returne from fifteen years exile, wi lh our Sovereigne Lord 
King Charles y e 2 d , made Dean of Wells in y e year 1660, gave 
this Brazen Deske, with God's holy worde thereon, to the saide 
Cathedral Church'' 



LECTERNS OF BRASS AND STONE 



175 




1 7 6 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 




In the choir of St George's, Windsor, stands a beautiful 
gilt latten lectern of Perpendicular design. The double desks 
are pierced with a charming pattern, and the ridge is embattled; 
candle brackets project from each end. It is now used for 
reading the lessons, but " anciently by the chanters where the 
choir was ruled j" 1 as at S. Pietro, Bologna (175). 

In connection with metal lecterns, it may be mentioned 
that there is a lightly-framed double desk of iron, which seems 

to be mediaeval, at Chippenham, 
Cambs. In the wardens' accounts of 
Mortlake, Surrey, there is an entry of 
45. " payd to the Smithe for the yron 
desk for the Byble." 

There are also a few examples 
to be found of lecterns of stone or 
marble. 

There is a good stone reading 
desk at Wenlock Priory, which pro- 
bably came from the Chapter House. 2 
It is boldly carved with twisted 
conventional foliage, and is of late 
twelfth-century or quite early thir- 
teenth-century date. 3 

The parish church of Crowle, 
Worcestershire, has a remarkable 
survival in the old lectern carved out 
of a block of blue-grey limestone, 
sunk to receive the book. The front 
and sides are sculptured with a con- 
ventional vine springing from inverted 
lions' heads. In the centre of the 
front is a beardless figure with bent 
Chippenham, Cambs. knees, holding on to the vine with 

both hands. Below the desk are a 

central and four angle shafts with foliated capitals, but the 
actual shafts are modern ; 4 they were supplied during " a 
judicious restoration" of 1845. Previous to this the stone 
had lain in the churchyard for many a long year. A possible 




J. F. E. 



1 Sir W. St John Hope's magnificent work on Windsor Castle, p. 448. 

a The lecterns at Wenlock, Crowle, and Norton are fully described and 
illustrated by Mr F. T. S. Houghton in the Proceedings of the Midland 
Institute for I3th January 1913. 

3 Illustrated \njourn. Arch. Assoc., iii. 130. 

4 Viet. Co. Hist. Wore., iii. 335. 



LECTERNS OF BRASS AND STONE 



177 




Crowle, Worcester 



1/8 PULPITS, LECTERNS AND ORGANS 

tradition says that it was brought here from Pershore Abbey. 
Its date is after 1200. 

The church of Norton, near Evesham, has a lectern of white 
limestone of the greatest possible interest. It is in the form of 
a sloping desk, with a sunk face and projecting rim to hold the 
book ; it now rests on a modern shaft and capital. The 
vertical sides are carved with foliage scrolls in high relief; a 
beast's head projects from the foliage on the north and south 
sides, whilst two human heads with close curled hair show on 
the east side. In the middle of the west face is the figure of 
a fully vested bishop, or more likely abbot, with crosier in left 
hand, and right hand raised in benediction. At the upper 




F. T. S. H. 

Norton, Worcester 

angles on the west face are pinholes, probably for candle 
brackets. This lectern was dug up on the site of Evesham 
Abbey in 1813, and described and illustrated in the ArcJiceologiay 
Mr Rudge, the writer, tried to identify it with lectricium retro- 
chorum made by Thomas de Marlebenge in 1217-18, when he 
was sacrist. In this he was clearly wrong, the style of work 
is fully fifty years earlier. It may very possibly be the lectri- 
cium capituli made by Abbot Adam (1160-91), provided he 
accomplished this work near the beginning of his rule. 2 

At Gloucester Cathedral is a stone desk opposite to the 
tomb of the murdered Edward II.; it is said that it was used 
for the book from whence addresses were given to the pilgrims 
to that shrine. 

1 Vol. xvii. 278. 2 See Viet. Co. Hist. Wore., vol. ii. 195, 419. 



LECTERNS OF BRASS AND STONE 



179 




G. II. W. 



Etwall, Derbyshire 



i8o 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 




G. H. \V. 




Mickleover 



Spondon 





G. H. w. 



G. H. w. 



Crich 



Chaddesclen 



LECTERNS OF BRASS AND STONE l8l 

Occasionally a small stone of a simple character obtrudes 
from the north chancel wall close to the high altar, where it 
doubtless served as a gospel lectern. This seems to be to 
some extent a local custom, as it occurs mostly in Derbyshire, 
but probably for no better cause than the instinct of similarity. 
In Derbyshire this gospel lectern is to be found, in the same 
position, in the six churches of Chaddesden, Crich, Etwall, 
Mickleover, Taddington, and Spondon. They also occur at 
Paull (broken), Pocklington, Ottrington, and Rous, East Riding 
Yorks. ; at Chipping Warden, Northants ; and at Walsoken, 
Norfolk. 

Stone desks are also recorded at South Burlingham, Norfolk, 
and Chesterblade, Somerset. 

At the west end of Beckley church, Oxon., there is a curious 
stone desk attached to one of the piers, near the font, which may 
have been intended to support the mediaeval Manual during 
the baptismal office. 



182 



CHAPTER IX 
LECTERNS OF WOOD 

THE emblem of the eagle in wood, in use for lecterns, was 
probably commoner in England's mediaeval days than those in 
brass. At the present time the extant number of old wooden 
eagles is about twenty, as compared with fifty in brass. But it 
must be remembered how perishable is wood as compared with 
brass, and how readily the former could be destroyed. In 
examining wooden eagles, it is readily seen how much easier 
the plumage can be reproduced in wood than in metal. It 
would also be a far less expensive material for the ordinary 
parish church. Although the shafts or stems of the oak eagle 
lecterns are much more varied than those in brass, it is curious 
to note how in several of them, as at Redenhall, Norfolk, and 
Holy Rood, Southampton, some attempt has been made to repro- 
duce the stiff circular mouldingsof their fellows in brass. The shafts 
of St Cross, Winchester, and of Holy Rood, Southampton, are 
much more in accord with what we should expect in Perpen- 
dicular woodwork ; the shaft of Leighton Buzzard is remarkably 
simple and plain, whilst the base of the fine eagle at Astbury, 
Cheshire, is strange and massive but effective (185). Redenhall 
church, Norfolk, is as eccentric in its wooden eagle as we have 
already shown it to be in its double-headed eagle of brass ; the 
tips of the inner wings rise up, and by joining their tips to the 
head of the eagle, on a line with its eyes, two almost circular 
openings are found on each side of the eagle's neck, whether it 
is regarded from the front or back (184). The worker in wood 
could far more easily produce unexpected effects than his brother 
craftsman in metal. At the great church of St Cross, Winchester, 
there is a somewhat remarkable wooden eagle which has attained 
the name of " the parrot eagle " from the stunted form of its 
beak. It is quite obviously intended for an eagle, and the beak 
and head are about as much like an eagle as a true parrot. The 
malformation very possibly arose from some flaw in the wood 
which the sculptor was not able to overcome. But the name 



LECTERNS OF WOOD 



clings to it, and on the occasion of two visits we overheard the 
bedesman verger telling two totally different yarns, both equally 
untrue, to gaping visitors, in order to account for this pseudo 
name (195). 





G. G B. 



C. F. N. 



Leighton Buzzard 



Redenhall, Norfolk 



The fine fourteenth-century eagle at Holy Rood, Southampton, 
holds a dragon with upturned head beneath its claws. 

In the south aisle of Bledlow, Bucks., is a wooden eagle 
with head looking backwards. The eagle is pre-Reformation, 
but the shaft and base are modern. The wooden eagle of 



1 84 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



Monksilver, Somerset, has lost the lower part of its stand, and is 
attached to the chancel screen (162). 

In Stoke D'Abernon church there is a wooden eagle lectern 
of foreign design : it is said to have come from Belgium and to 
have been placed here in the first half of the last century. The 
lectern at St Thomas's, Exeter, came from the cathedral, and in 
1847 was supplied with feathers; originally it was featherless, 
like the eagle at Ottery St Mary. 




C. F. N. 



Redenhall, Norfolk 



The following is an attempt at 
old wooden eagles : 

Astbury, Cheshire 
Bledlow, Bucks. 
Bigbury, Devon 
East Brent, Somerset 
Exeter, St Thomas 
Keddington, Lincolnshire 
Lapford, Devon 
Laughton-en-le-Morthen, West 

Riding, Yorks. 
Leighton Buzzard, Beds. 
Leverington, Cambs. 
Monksilver, Somerset 



a complete list of the surviving 

Ottery St Mary, Devon 

Phillack, Cornwall 

Redenhall, Norfolk 

Southampton, Holy Rood (four- 
teenth century) 

Sparsholt, Berks, (fourteenth 
century) 

Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey 

Swimbridge, Devon 

Wheathamstead, Herts. 

Winchester Cathedral Choir 
St Cross 



LECTERNS OF WOOD 



I8 5 




Astbury, Cheshire 



24 



1 86 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 




T. M. <:. I.. 



Detling, Kent 



LECTERNS OF WOOD 



187 



More often the wooden lectern is desk-shaped ; it may com- 
prise only a single desk, as at Bury, Hunts. ; frequently two 
desks, as at Shipdham, Norfolk ; or even four desks, as at 
Detling, Kent. Sometimes the desk revolves, as at Wood 
Newton, Northants. In Bristol Cathedral is a desk on wheels 
with a cupboard in the middle. Painted lecterns occur at 
Littlebury, Essex, and Ranworth, Norfolk ; whilst several others 
of the fifteenth century show traces of former colouring and 
gilding. Ranworth's plain desk is unique, for it retains painted 




T. M. G. L. 



Detling, Kent 



on it a versicle, with the old musical notation ; this desk used 
to stand on the rood-loft (188). 

Several lecterns have of late years been made up of old 
fragments of mediaeval carving or panelling, and are apt to 
deceive the unwary as to their age, notably at Bodmin, Cornwall, 
and at Edith Weston, Rutland. 

Bury, 1 Hunts., has the oldest of such lecterns, dating from 
early in the Decorated period. Not far behind comes the striking 
four-sided lectern of Detling with beautiful decorated carving, 
c. 1320. Each of the desks is carved with different geometrical 

1 Engraved in Parker's Glossary, ii. PI. 21. 



i88 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



traceried designs. There is an effective cresting, in the centre 
of which is the pedestal intended, we presume, for candlestick 
arms. This desk would be used for antiphonal singing, and it 
has been suggested that it may have been brought here from 
the neighbouring abbey of Leeds or Boxley. 








c. F. N. 



C. F. N. 



Blythburgh, Suffolk 



Ranworth, Norfolk 



There is an old oak lectern of early fourteenth-century date 
at Old Shoreham, Sussex. 

At Peakirk, near Peterborough, is an imperfect but highly 
interesting example of a wooden lectern of the first half of the 



LECTERNS OF WOOD 189 

fourteenth century. It is thus described by Mr Peers in the 
Victoria History of the county (ii. 521) : " The old revolving desk 
is unfortunately lost, but the wooden stem, composed of eight 
slender filleted shafts with moulded capitals and base, is in fairly 
good condition, and stands on an original moulded stone base, 
an octagon set diagonally on a square. Traces of red paint 
remain on the wood." When visiting this church in the 'seventies 
of last century, the present writer was told by an old man that 
he well remembered " the swinging top," as he called it ; it was 
broken off and much damaged by the fall of a ladder during 
some repairs to the roof. 




Ranworth, Norfolk 

Shipdham, Norfolk, is probably the finest example of wooden 
lecterns now surviving. It is of fifteenth-century date, c. 1470; 
the design is of much beauty and merit. This lectern is 
constructed with a triangular shaft consisting of three but- 
tresses, the angles between them being ornamented with lines 
of small quatrefoils from top to bottom. This shaft rests on 
a base of three members extended in triangular form, and 
each supported by a lion sejant. At the top there is an 
embattled capital, which supports a double desk of the usual 
form ; the sides of the desk are richly carved with circular 
designs, two on each, of varied tracery. The ends are also 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



filled with quatrefoils and foliage, whilst a cresting of leaves 
forms the ridge. The actual desk underwent a slight and most 
careful restoration in 1856, but the rest is quite original. 




Shipdham, Norfolk 



In the nave of Ivinghoe, Berks., is a wooden fifteenth-century 
lectern on a hexagonal stem with a wide moulded base. 

East Harling, Norfolk, used to be possessed of a singularly 
interesting wooden lectern of Decorated style. It consisted of 



LECTERNS OF WOOD 



191 




G. H. T. 



Ramsey, Hunts. 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 




C. F. N. 



All Saints, Pavement, York 



LECTERNS OF WOOD 



193 




a lozenge-shaped shaft, rising from a plain cross-bar base, but 
having a circular moulded capital. The double desk had an 
embattled top, and the ends were well carved with cinquefoil 
cusping and diaper work. 1 On inquiring for this desk four or 
five years ago, the present writer was informed that, through 
some gross carelessness, it was "lost or stolen" during a restora- 
tion of 1878-79. Rumour has it that it was secretly purchased 
by some unprincipled American, and that it is now in an episcopal 
church near Boston. 

Scole, near Diss, possesses a simple 
but most effective example of a wooden 
lectern of the fifteenth century. It 
consists of an octagonal stem or shaft 
without any capital, but is supported on 
a graduated moulded base terminating 
in a square, having a boldly carved open 
single oak leaf at each angle. The desk 
is of a plain double character. 2 

Ramsey, Hunts., has a singularly 
good double-desked lectern, c. 1450, 
doubtless used in the old abbey, and 
now bearing a sixteenth-century chained 
Bible ; the ridge is embattled, but the 
chief feature is the shaft supported by 
three widely projecting buttresses with 
pierced tracery, and each crowned with a 
diminutive figure (191). Another double- 
desked fifteenth-century lectern with a 
buttressed shaft, and four small figures 
between them, is that of All Saints, 
Pavement, York ; it is supposed to have 
been brought here from the church of 
St Crux (192). The good eighteenth- 
century double-desked lectern of Blyth- G. c. n. 
burgh, Suffolk, with the end pierced by East Hendred, Berks, 
open quatrefoils, has often been illus- 
trated (188). Two other good but fairly plain double lecterns 
of the fifteenth century occur at Lingfield, Surrey, and at St 
Michael-at-Thorn, Norwich. 3 

In his Little Guide to Berkshire, Mr Brabant states that 

1 Illustrated in Instrumenta Ecclesiastica, PI. xx., ist Series (1847) ; also 
in Norfolk Arch., vii. 123. 

2 Illustrated on PI. 2 of Instrumenta Ecclesiastica, ist Series, 1847. 

3 Illustrated in Dr Cox's Norfolk Churches, ii. 185. 

25 




194 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



tm^aai 





St Michael's, College Hill, London 



LECTERNS OF WOOD 



195 



the lectern of East Hendred is " pre-Reformation and curious " ; 
it certainly is curious, for this single-desked simple lectern is 
supported on a shaft which terminates in a human foot ; there is 
also a projection for a lower book-rest (193). Buckinghamshire 
has four seventeenth-century wooden lecterns. At Swanbourne is 
an oak lectern with turned shaft, resting on four feet with scrolled 
braces ; at Long Crendon is a wood lectern, with a circular 
shaft, late seventeenth century; in the south aisle of Quainton 
church, resting on an altar- 
table, is an oak desk with 

carved ornaments, bearing 
the names of the church- 
wardens and date 1682 ; in 
the gallery at Cublington is 
a revolving hexagonal desk, 
with turned post and curved 
feet, given, as inscribed, by 
Joseph Neale, 1675. 

Other wooden lecterns 
not hitherto mentioned in- 
clude Littlebury, Little 
Horkesly, Newport, and 
Shalford (all Perpendicu- 
lar), Essex ; Lyme Regis 
(double), seventeenth cen- 
tury, Dorset; Maisey- 
Hampton, 1623 (with book- 
chain), Gloucestershire ; 
Aldbury (double), Herts. ; 
Lenham, Kent ; Epworth 
and Swaton, Lincolnshire ; 
Bitterley, Salop ; Cheddar, 
Chedzoy (double, revolving, 

painted), 1618 ; High Ham (curious design), Wedmore, 
Somerset ; Wednesbury, Staffordshire ; Hawkstead, Hopton-by- 
Lowestoft, and Lavenham, Suffolk ; East Coulston, Wilts. ; 
Harthill and Kirkheaton l (double), Yorkshire. 

At Boscombe, Wilts., there is an oblong deal stand with 
sloping desk round which the church band used to gather ; its use 
is remembered by several of the older inhabitants. 

Some of the London city churches possess examples of post- 
Restoration lecterns ; e.g., St Michael's, College Hill. 

1 Temp. Charles II., Arch. Assoc. Sketch Book, 1808. 




J. F. E. 



St Cross, Winchester 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 




T. B. 



Cumnor, Berks. 



197 



CHAPTER X 
READING DESKS 

" THIS ABOMINATION," as the hand-book of the old Cambridge 
Camden Society unkindly describes it, " was first devised in the 
beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Till that time, of 
course, the priest said the service nowhere but in the choir ; 
the only seat which he ought to use is his stall in the choir." 

It is curious to note how the use of a reading-desk at the 
east end of the nave has died out in nine-tenths of English 
churches during the last half-century ; the old custom of reading 
matins and evensong from a choir-stall is now everywhere 
prevalent. 

As the Reformation gradually developed, the use of a special 
desk or pew gained ground, but there was much diversity of 
practice in the earlier years of Elizabeth, and much depended 
upon the caprice of particular bishops. 

In a paper found among Secretary Cecil's MSS., it is noted 
that in that year some ministers performed Divine service in the 
chancel, others in the nave, and some in a seat made in the 
church. 

In 1569 Bishop Parkhurst of Norwich ordered that "in all 
smaller churches there be some convenient seat outside the 
chancel door . . . where the minister may say the whole of the 
Divine service, that all the congregation may hear and be edified 
therewith." In 1571 Archbishop Grindal of York gave the follow- 
ing precise directions : " That the people may the better hear the 
morning and evening prayer when the same by the minister is 
said, and be the more edified thereby, we do enjoin that the 
churchwardens of every parish, at the charges of the parish, 
shall procure a decent low pulpit to be erected and made in the 
body of the church out of hand, wherein the minister shall stand 
with his face toward the people when he readeth morning and 
evening prayer; provided always that where the churches are 
very small, it shall suffice that the minister stand in his 
accustomed stall in the choir, so that a convenient desk or 



198 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



lectern, with room to turn his face towards the people, be there 
provided," etc. 

At St Peter Cheap, London, there was " paid for 2 matts 
for the pewe wherein Mr Parson saithe the service, the Xth daie 
of November, 1 568 ; vj d." 




c. B. s. 



Clevedon, Somerset 



In the accounts of 1577 for St Mary, Shrewsbury, is an item 
for " colouring the curates deske? 

At last it was definitely made obligatory by the Canons of 
1603 "that a convenient seat be made for the minister to read 
service in." 

But very few examples are extant of the ministers' pews of 
Elizabethan date. In the little disused church of Sutton, near 
Shrewsbury, the reading desk is carved, " Richard A tkys, Schole- 



READING DESKS 

master, 1582." At Barwick, Somerset, the letters " W. H." are on 
the reading desk door ; they are said to be the initials of William 
Hope, who was patron of the church in early Elizabethan days. 
Harleston, Northants, is dated 1591. 

Sometimes the reading pew had double desks, so that the 
minister could face either west or south ; the first position for the 
lessons, and the latter for the rest of the service. But as a rule 
they were set with their backs severely to the altar. Old double 
desks of this description may be noted at Clevedon, Somerset 
(198), East Ilsley, Berks., and Woodford, Northants ; good ex- 
amples of seventeenth-century reading desks may be noted at 
Salford Prior, Warwickshire (1616), Chedzoy, Somerset, with 
double arcading (1620), and Mayfield, Staffordshire, inscribed 
in raised letters, " Mr William Barton, Vicar of Mafield, entred 
Marck 10, 1630." That great trophy of Jacobean carving erected 
at Croscombe, Somerset, by Bishop Lake in 1616, included a fine 
reading desk. Cumnor, Berks., is a singularly large and hand- 
some example ; another is seen at Tawstock, Devon (196). 

George Herbert made his pulpit and reading desk equal in 
height " so as to be of equal honour and estimation, and agree 
like brethren." 

But this idea also occurred to another devout churchman of 
the same period, for Nicholas Ferrar, when embellishing the small 
church of Little Gidding, Hunts., in 1625, placed both pulpit and 
reading desk on the same level opposite each other, " it being 
thought improper that a higher place should be appointed for 
preaching than that which was allotted for prayer." 

It is worth noticing that no mention of the new desk was 
introduced into the Prayer Book till 1661, since which time the 
Preface to the Commination Service directs "After Morning 
Prayer . . . the Priest shall, in the Reading Pew or Pulpit, 
say," etc. 

A synonym for " reading desk " was " reader's pew." Thus 
Christopher Harvey sings : 

" But, if my pulpit-hopes shall all prove vain, 
I'll back unto the, reading pue again." 



200 



CHAPTER XI 
DESKS FOR CHAINED BOOKS 

THERE is another kind of desk, or lectern, or stand for books 
which yet tarries in a fair number of our churches, though not 
connected, except in the case of Bibles, with public worship. 
These were the desks upon which rested chained books for the 
use of private readers. 

As printing gained ground, and books obtained admission 
to even the humblest of homes, a chained book became an 
anachronism, and no wonder that the stands to which they were 
attached became so much useless lumber, especially as such 
stands rarely if ever consisted of ornamental or carved wood- 
work. As early as 1622, an enlightened benefactor left a 
number of books to be stored in the parish church of Repton, 
Derbyshire, provided they were not chained, but lent according 
to the discretion of the minister and wardens. By the close of 
the seventeenth century the custom of chaining books came 
almost to an end. 

It is a great mistake to imagine that the chaining of books 
in churches came in with the Reformation. Lyndwood's will 
of 1443 provides for the chaining of his Provinciale in a chapel 
of Westminster Abbey. Sir Thomas Lyttleton bequeathed 
several works to the abbey of Hales Owen, in 1481, "to be 
bounden with an yron chayn so that all priests and others may 
se and rede when it plesyth them." Thomas, Earl of Ormond, 
directed in 15 14 that his glossed Psalter (doubtless in English) 
be fastened with a chain to his tomb in the city church of St 
Thomas Aeon. 

The wardens' accounts of St Michael's, Cornhill, for 1475 
contain the following entry : 

For lengyng of an yron cheyne and making it to serve to 

the glosed sawter in our Lady Chappell ij d. 

The following highly interesting set of books were chained 
in the Lady chapel of All Saints, Derby, according to an entry, 
c. 1525, in the parish books : 



DESKS FOR CHAINED BOOKS 2OI 

These be the bokes in our lady Chapell tyed with chenes y* were 
gyffen to Alhaloes Church in Derby. 

In primis one Boke called summa summarum. 

Item A boke called Summa Raumundi. 

Item Anoyer called pupilla occuli. 

Item Anoyer called the Sexte. 

Item A boke called Hugucyon. 

Item A boke called Vitas patrum. 

Item Anoyer boke called pauls pistols (English). 

Item A boke called Januensis super evangeliis dominicalibus. 

Item A greete portuose. 

Item Anoyer boke called legenda Aurea (probably printed). 1 

In 1590 Thomas I ken left to the Shropshire church of 
Hodnet, "term shillinges in monye to buye a deske and a 
chaine" for the preservation of Erasmus' Paraphrase, Foxe's 
Martyrs, and Jewel's Apology. 

The books that remain chained are but few, and are chiefly 
confined to the three just mentioned, with an occasional Bible, 
but the number of churches which retain a book or books that 
show they have been chained is certainly upwards of one 
hundred and fifty ; they are often stowed away in chests or 
cupboards. 2 The stands of diverse kinds that are yet extant are 
probably under forty. It seems only necessary to give two 
illustrations, namely a single stand at Sherborne St John, Hants, 
and a later double stand, for several volumes, at Breadsall, 
Derbyshire ; the latter was reduced to ashes in June 1914, when 
the ancient church of Breadsall was burnt by militant suffragists. 
The following is a list of some of the more important stands that 
are still (or until recently) extant (202) : 

Appleby, Westmoreland. Stand with 3 vols. of Foxe, west end of south 

aisle, 1632. 
Breadsall, Derbyshire. Double reading desk with folding lids, 4 vols. 

each side. 

Bristol, St Mary Redcliffe. Desk for chained Bible. 
Cavendish, Suffolk. Double desk, with Jewel and Homilies. 
Bromsgrove, Wore. Desk with chained Jewel. 
Cirencester, Glouc. Desk for chained book. 
Cumnor, Berks. Desk for 1611 Bible. 

1 Soon after Dr Cox discovered these early parish books and restored 
them to the church, Mr Henry Bradshaw, University Librarian, Cambridge, 
supplied a valuable series of notes on them to the Chronicles of All Saints, 
pp. 175-77. 

2 Upwards of one hundred are named in the first edition of Church 
Furniture (1907), pp. 336-40, and many entries have been since added. 

26 



202 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 





DESKS FOR CHAINED BOOKS . 2O3 

Fairford, Glouc. Lectern with chained early edition of Calvin's 

Institutes and Whole Duty of Man, 1725. 
Frampton Cotterell, Glouc. Chained Jewel on an old lectern 
Hodnet, Salop. Chained books on a Jacobean stand. 
Kinver, Staff. Desk 7 feet long, Foxe (1581), Jewel (1609), and two 

others. 

Kingston, Devon. Bible (1617) on stand. 
Lingfield, Surrey. Bible and Jewel, chained on a double desk. 
Northampton, St Giles. Desk in north chancel chapel, Calvin (1609), 

Homilies (1676). 
Sherborne St John, Hants. A triple desk, with the three vols. of 

Foxe's Martyrs. 

Towcester, Northants. Desk, south aisle, Bible, Homilies, and Foxe. 
Wiggenhall, Norfolk. Bible, Foxe, Jewel, and Homilies, chained to a 

desk. 
Wootton Wawen, Warwickshire. Calvin (1573), Jewel (1611), and ten 

other vols. chained to a curiously planned desk given by George 

Dunscombe, vicar, ob. 1652. 
York, All Saints, Pavement. Jewel on an old lectern. 



204 



CHAPTER XII 
ORGANS AND ORGAN CASES 

THERE is no necessity in these limited pages to enter into 
questions of the rise and origin of organs, or of their gradual 
development and accessories ; all this can be found set forth 
with precision and detail in the authoritative pages of Messrs 
Hopkins' and Rimbault's several editions of The Organ, and in 
Sir George Grove's Dictionary of Music. Much is to be learnt 
from the delightful pages of the Rev. F. W. Galpin's English 
Instruments of Music (1910). Our only concern is with a few 
preliminary words as to the early use of organs in England, and 
notices of the more remarkable of the older cases. These old 
organ cases are for various reasons of considerably less interest 
in England than in Switzerland, France, Germany, or Spain. 

Church organs were introduced into England at least as 
early as the dawn of the eighth century. St Aldhelm, who died 
in 709, states that native workmen ornamented the front pipes 
of their organs with gilding. He is supposed to have erected 
the first organ at Malmesbury, of which he was abbot from 680 
to 705, and that it was this organ which inspired his graphic 
description. Fanitius describes an organ erected by St Dunstan 
in the tenth century at this same abbey of Malmesbury, and 
says that he saw the following distich on a brass plate attached 
to the instrument : 

" Organa do Sane to Praesul Duns tans A del mo 
Perdat hie aeternum qui vult hinc toller e regnum? 

Dunstan also erected organs for the abbeys of Glastonbury 
and Abingdon. In 951 Elphege, Bishop of Winchester, built 
one for that minster, which is said to have required several men 
to set the keys in motion, and fill the four hundred tubes with 
air. From this date onwards the large minster or abbey churches 
became speedily supplied with organs, and by the thirteenth 
century the larger parish churches were equally well equipped. 
They multiplied exceedingly during the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, so that it was, we believe, difficult to find any church 



ORGANS AND ORGAN CASES 



205 



uw 

M- - 

Bl:i : K, ^. -Vi:;w,W,- ,i* A i," 




$ ! : 

"-].,;?- 









F. H. S. 



Old Radnor, Wales 



F. H. s. 

Old Radnor 



206 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

of decent proportion destitute of such an instrument. At all 
events, so far as they have been investigated, there is not a 
single extant set of pre-Reformation churchwardens' accounts 
which does not abound with items relative to the repair or 
supply of organs. 1 It would be quite an easy matter to fill 
at least fifty pages of this size with such extracts ; we must 
be content with a few items from two or three of the more 
interesting. 

The accounts of St Petrock, Exeter, show that a rood-loft 
was erected in 1458-59. In 1472-73 a seat was made at a cost 
of 75. for use when playing on the organs in the rood-loft ; about 
this date the clerk of the church received 6s. 8d. a year for 
playing the organs. In 1519 new organs were purchased for 
10 and "the olde pair sold." 

1455 (St Margaret, SouthwarK). For a peyre of newe 

Organes v li. vj s. viij d. 

For a pleyer to pley upon the same Organes hyred 

in Chepe xiij s. iiij d. 

To Mychell for pleying upon the organes xij s. 

1457. To John Fychelle Organ pleyer - xl s. 

X 5 r 3 (St Mary, Cambridge}. Payed to a blak Fryer in Estir 

holidaies for to pley atte Orgaynes xvj d. 

1526. For a skynne ledir to amend the organs ix d. 

1527. For a new handell makyng for the orgayne tokeylle ij d. 
P d for a quartt off Suett wyne to the orgyn makyr for ys 

relabor iiij d. 
1537. Payed for ij lokkes and iij Jemens (hinges) for the 

Organnys xiiij d. 

Payd for a staffe for the Belowes of the said Organn>s - iiij d. 
1543. Item of Thomas Canam for xliiij li. of tynne comyng 

of the old orgayne pypes xj s. 
1557. Payd to Dyall for playeng of our orgaynes from the 

xij th of May to the iiij th of June ij s. viij d. 

1559. For a booke called a grayle for the organys iij s. iiij d. 

For byndyng of the booke for the orgayns viij d. 

The numerous parish accounts of the city churches abound 
in organ entries. The earliest of them is for 1433, when 
St Peter Cheap paid 6s. 8d. " for ye Organs mendyng." 

There were two organs at the church of St Mary-at-Hill, the 
smaller one in the choir and the larger one probably on the 
rood-loft. The inventory of 1496 names " ij peyre of old 
organs," whilst the inventory of 1553 mentions " ij paire of 
Organs y one gretter yen y other." The accounts for the 

1 See Dr Cox's Churchwarden? Accounts (1913), pp. 196-204. 



ORGANS AND ORGAN CASES 



2O7 





208 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

latter year enter 53. 6d. "for mending the great organs and 
mendynge the bellowes and for mendynge the lytell organs." 
In 1477 one Walter Pleasance was paid 6d. "for playing at the 
organs " on St Barnabas' day. 

1519-20. For Bryngyng of the Orgons from Seint Andrewys 

to our chirche agent Seint Barnabas Eve ij d. 

For the beryng home of the Orgon to Seint 

Andrewys iij d. 

1521-22. To the Orgonmaker for the Orgons in money 
besidse that was gaderid and for bryngyng home 
of the same orgons x s. viij d. 

To the Orgonmaker as aperith by Identure for the 
oversight of the orgons for certen yeris, yerely 
to now - xij d. 

1523-24. To John Northfolke for a Rewarde for kepyng the 

Quere and the Orgons all the xij days in Cristemas vj s. viij d. 
Paid for brede and Drynk spent uppon the Orgon- 
maker and other of the parisshe in the tyme 
of the Amendyng of the Orgons xj d. 

1524-25. To the Orgonmaker for mendyng the Orgons 
accordyng to the Mynde of M r Northfolke and 
at his devyse - ij s. 

To the iij Almesmen, to every of them ij d. for 
theyre weke when they do blaw the orgons 
when ther weke comyth - viij s. viij d. 

The organ used always to be described as organs in the 
plural, and usually as " a pair of organs." This latter term, often 
erroneously interpreted, is simply an equivalent to the word " set," 
and means an instrument of more pipes than one. A " pair of 
beads " used to be an equally common expression, meaning a 
set and not two. Nearly a score of like examples of this use of 
the word " pair " in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries could 
be adduced. We still speak or write of a pair of steps or stairs 
" two pair back " when a flight of several steps is intended. 
An amusing instance is still common enough among humbler 
folk in the West of England and elsewhere, when pair of drawers 
is said or written, implying a chest of drawers. 

The parish accounts but rarely mention the small " regals " 
or portable organs which could even be carried and played at 
the same time, for they had gone much out of fashion in the 
days during which these accounts survive. They occur, however, 
at St Peter Cheap, when Howe, the organ-maker, usually called 
Father Howe, was paid 35. in 1555 for repairs to "doble regalls," 
and 2s. in the following year " for ij new pypes for the organs, 
and basse to the regalls." But there are various references to 



ORGANS AND ORGAN CASES 



2O9 




M. B. A. 



Framlingham, Suffolk 



210 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

the comparatively small primitive organs, which, though played 
from a stand, could be moved about as required from one part of 
the building to the other, or even carried on special occasions to 
another church, as we have already seen in the accounts of 
St Mary-at-Hill. 

English church organs of this period usually stood on the 
rood-loft, though occasionally on a special loft of their own. An 
additional smaller pair of organs often stood in the choir or the 
Lady chapel of the larger churches. 

Objections to the use of organs were strongly urged by the 
more puritanical of the reformers " those poor withered souls," 
as Sir W. Richmond aptly calls them of the sixteenth century. 
On 1 3th February 1562, among articles put down for discussion 
by the Geneva element in the Lower House of Convocation was 
one to the effect " That the use of Organs be removed." There 
were 117 votes recorded, and organs were only saved by a 
majority of one ! In 1561 Bishops Grindal and Home wrote to 
their continental supporters that they disapproved of the use of 
organs. It is no wonder, then, that various parishes got rid of 
their organs about the middle of Elizabeth's fickle reign, 
anticipating that they would shortly be seized by the Crown or 
by Church officials. This is the explanation of an entry 
previously cited from the accounts of St Peter Cheap. The 
attack on organs was renewed some ten years later, and certain 
parishes, like St Laurence, Reading, avowedly sold their 
instruments lest they should be " forfeited into the hands of the 
organ-takers." 

In 1644, ordinances of the Lords and Commons of pth May 
enjoined that " all organs and the frames and cases in which they 
stand, in all churches and chappels shall be taken away and 
utterly defaced, and none other hereafter set up in their places." 
Nevertheless some escaped, but chiefly in cathedral or collegiate 
churches. 

After the Restoration organs came in again apace. English- 
men had practically lost the art of organ-making. Bernard 
Smith (usually known as Father Smith), a German, and Thomas 
and Rene Harris, Frenchmen, were the chief craftsmen to supply 
the demand. 

As to organ cases, they do not appear to have been known 
till towards the close of the fourteenth century. Apart from the 
Continent, the oldest organ case is that of Old Radnor, which 
stands on the north side of the chancel. This handsome and 
curious case is a blending of Renaissance work with a distinct 
survival of Gothic feeling. The linen-fold panelling is elaborate, 
and distinctly good ; it is repeated at the sides up to the total 



ORGANS AND ORGAN CASES 



211 




% 

oJ 

be 

I 

00 




DC 

c 

1 




212 



PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 



height of eighteen feet. The date is clearly late Tudor, and not 
Jacobean as sometimes stated. It seems to us more likely to be 
quite late Henry VIII. than Marian or Elizabethan. The case 
has been most carefully restored, and fitted to a new instrument. 

Another beautiful organ case is that at Framlingham, in 
Suffolk ; it dates from 1674, and was brought here from Pem- 
broke College, Cambridge. The organist is screened off by 
scroll work of exquisite Renaissance design. The natural notes 
of the keyboard are black, whilst the short keys or semi-tones 
are white. 

Good organs and their cases seem to have acquired a habit 




M. B. A. 



Framlingham, Suffolk 



of migrating. For instance, the fine organ front of St Peter 
Mancroft, Norwich, was purchased about 1875, and now stands 
in the south chancel aisle of St Nicholas, Yarmouth. As there 
are manifold and marvellous stories about the splendid organ 
of Yarmouth, it may be well to state that this fine instrument 
was built by Abraham Jorden, in 1733, for this church, and was 
erected at the west end of the south aisle. In 1869 it was 
removed to the north transept. In 1875 it was again removed, 
divided into two sections, and placed in the two chancel aisles. 
The St Peter Mancroft organ front harmonised so nearly with the 
old case, now in the north aisle, that arrangements were made 
for its acquisition. When the imposing new chapel of St 
John's College, Cambridge, was built, 1862-69, the good front 



ORGANS AND ORGAN CASES 



213 




214 PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS 

of the old organ was moved to the church of Bilton, near Rugby. 
But the strangest case of migration remains to be told in 
connection with "the Milton organ," as it is usually termed 
at Tewkesbury Abbey. Magdalen College, Oxford, obtained a 
new organ in 1637. When organs were prohibited for worship 
by the Commonwealth, Protector Cromwell had it removed to 
Hampton Court, where the poet Milton is reputed to have played 
on it. At the Restoration this instrument was restored to 
Magdalen College, who had it re-erected in the chapel, and 
repaired by Dallam. In 1737 the college disposed of it to 
Tewkesbury, and it stood on the screen there until 1875. I* 
is now in the chancel. There is also a fine organ case at the 
most interesting church of Stanford, Northamptonshire. To 
this a story of migration is attached, which as usually told and 
printed cannot be possible. It appears to be true that it came 
from old Whitehall Palace, but that it was transhipped there 
from Magdalen College chapel must be wrong. 

There is a beautiful organ of much merit and chaste design 
at St Margaret's, Lynn (211). It bears : 

"Johannes Suetzlar Londini fecit 1754." 

Among other fine cases of some age are those of the 
cathedral churches of Worcester, Gloucester, Norwich, St Paul's, 
Southwell, and Manchester; Christ's College (1636) and Pem- 
broke College (1664), Cambridge; 1 and the parish churches 
of Finedon, Northants, and Abingdon (1666), Berks. 2 All 
Hallows, Lombard Street, has one of the best organs of the 
Wren churches. 3 

In the basement of the new London Museum, at Stafford 
House, in a bad light it is worthy of a better place is the 
well-finished case of a small choir organ of the Grinling Gibbons 
type, which was originally made for Westminster Abbey in 1660, 
and held an instrument of Father Schmidt's. After its ejection 
it was stored for some time in the tower of St Margaret's, West- 
minster, and afterwards given to Bransbury chapel, demolished 
in 1705. 

The old organs of St George's, Windsor, seem to have been 
destroyed in early Reformation days. In 1609 Thomas Dallam 
of London, a well-known organ-maker, was instructed to build 
new organs, and payments connected with their construction 
appear for several years. In Ashmole's Order of the Garter there 

1 Arch. Assoc. Sketch Book, 1893. 

2 Arch. Assoc. Sketch Book, 1901. 

3 Illustrated in Archit. Review, March 1903. 



ORGANS AND ORGAN CASES 



215 



is a plate by Hollar giving a west view of the organ screen and 
organ. The case is a beautiful Renaissance design, with angels 
blowing trumpets on the tops of the side towers. Charles II.'s 
arms make it clear that this is not the 1609 organ, which was 
destroyed during the interregnum, but the one ordered by the 
Chapter in 1660 of "Mr Dallame," for which he was to receive 
600. During the considerable works done in the chapel 1782- 
92, " The king presented a magnificent Organ made by Green 
(the old one was by his Majesty's desire given to the Parish 
Church). The Case of the Organ was made from the design and 
under the direction of Mr Emlyn." The new organ cost .1,010. 
The case is elaborately decorated, and the principal divisions are 
carried as pinnacled turrets, of which there are four on each 
side. 1 

1 Sir W. St John Hope's splendid work on Windsor Castle^ pp. 447-49- 




G. H. L. 



St Stephen's, Walbrook 



217 



INDEX LOCORUM 



The page number is printed in Clarendon type where there is an illustration. 



A BBEY DORE, 91, 116 
1~\ Abbotsbury, 104, 106 
Aberdeen, 165 
Abingdon, 97, 204, 214 
Abington, 130 
Affpuddle, 33, 62, 89 
Albrighton-by-Shifnal, 135 
Albury, 118 
Aldborough, 144 
Aldbury, 195 
Aldeburgh, 138 
Alderton, 130 
Aldridge, 134 
Aldworth, 98 
Alfold, 138 
Alford, 124 
Alne, 144 
Alrewas, 134 
Alton, 112 
Alvington, 105 
Ampney Crucis, 44 
Antwerp, 96 
Appleby, 201 
Arlington, 96, 101 
Arlington, 33, 146 
Arundel, 21, 48 
Ashburton, 60 
Ashby St Ledgers, 130 
Ashley Abbots, 134 
Ashwell, 118 
Ashton, 105 
Astbury, 185 
Aston Bury, 118 
Aston Cantlovv, 78 
Aston Tirrold, 52 
Astwick, 96 
Aveley, 108 
Axminster, 106 



BADSEY, 80 
Banstead, 138 
Banwell, 9, 46 

28 



Barnswell St Andrew, 128 
Barnstaple, 149 
Barrington, 100 
Barrowden, 120, 132 
Barton, 100 
Barton-in-Fabis, 130 
Barwick, 135, 198 
Basing, no 
Basingstoke, no 
Baulking, 96 
Bearstall, 100 
Beaulieu, 76 
Beckley, 181 
Beddingfield, 138 
Belbroughton, 143 
Berkhamsted, 150 
Bessingham, 70 
Bewick St James, 50 
Bigbury, 66 
Hilton, 214 
Binfield, 153, 154 
Bishop Stortford, 92, 118 
Bishop's Lydeard, 121, 135 
Bishop's Waltham, no 
Bishopstone, 143 
Bisley, 134 
Bitterley, 134, 195 
Black Bourton, 46 
Bleadon, 41 
Bledlow, 183 
Bletchingley, 150 
Blisworth, 102 
Bloxworth, 149 

Blythburgh, in, 138, 183, 193 
Boconnoc, 102 
Bodmin, 54, 187 
Bolnhurst, 96 
Bolton-le-Moors, 66 
Bolton Percy, 144 
Bologna, 175, 176 
Bosbury, 116 
Boscombe, 143, 195 
Boston, 124 



218 



INDEX LOCORUM 



Botolphs, 140 

Bottesford, 122 

Bourne Abbey, 124 

Bourton-on-Dunsmore, 141 

Boveney, 98 

Bovey Tracey, u, 40, 170, 171 

Bow Brickhill, 54 

Boxford, 96 

Boyton Malherbe, 66 

Brad worthy, 105 

Braithwell, 143 

Brancaster, 94, 97 

Brancepeth, 85, 108 

Braunton, 106 

B.readsall, 58, 201, 202 

Brean, 135 

Breaston, 105 

Bridford, 60 

Bridgwater, 76 

Brightstone, 112 

Brigstock, 72 

Brinckley, 100 

Brink worth, 141, 142 

Brimpsfield, no 

Brisley, 70 

Bristol, 1 10, 151, 157, 187, 201 

Broad winsor, 106 

Brockworth, 32, 64 

Broad was, 143 

Brockley, 46 

Bradsworth, 146 

Bromsgrove, 201 

Brough, 50, 69 

Buckfast Abbey, 60 

Buckland Brewer, 60 

Bucknell, 132 

Bungay, 89 

Burford, 32 

Burgh, 124 

Burgh St Andrew, 136 

Burlingham St Andrew, 32 

Burlingham St Edmund, 70 

Burnham Norton, 23, 32, 70 

Burton-in-Kendal, 141 

Bury, 187 

Bury St Edmunds, 30 

Butlers Marston, 141 

Buxted, 140 

Bygrave, 66 



/^ADDINGTON, 96 
\~s Caerwent, 126 
Camborne, 54 

Cambridge, 30, 54, 66, 165, 172, 212, 
214 



Canterbury, 30 

Carisbrooke, 114 

Carlisle, 36 

Carlton Husthwaite, 146 

Castleacre, 70 

Caston, 126 

Catesby, 130 

Catton, 70 

Cavendish, 201 

Cawston, 69, 70 

Cerne Abbas, 108 

Chaddesden, 180, 181 

Chaldon, 140 

Chale, 44 

Chalgrove, 132 

Charlecombe, 48 

Charlton-on-Otmoor, 132 

Charlton Adam, 135 

Charlwood, 138 

Charney Bassett, 53 

Chastleton, 132 

Cheddar, 32, 45, 48, 195 

Cheddington, 98 

Chediston, 136 

Chedworth, 44 

Chedzoy, 89, 103, 135, 195, 199 

Chellington, 96 

Chelveston, 128 

Chelvey, 157 

Cheriton Marshall, 108 

Cherry Hinton, 100 

Chesham, 98 

Chester, 36 

Chesterblade, 181 

Chesterfield, 105 

Childrey, 38 

Chilton, 54, 158 

Chippenham, 150, 176 

Chipping Campden, 108, 169 

Chipping Sudbury, 32 

Chipping Warden, 181 

Chipstead, 138 

Chittlehampton, 40 

Chivelstone, 59, 60 

Church Preen, 134 

Church Pulverbatch, 150 

Church Stretton, 134 

Cirencester, 39, 42,211 

Claypole, 67, 68 

Clee St Margaret, 134 

Clevedon, 198, 199 

Cley, 126 

Cliffe-at-Hoo, 120, 154, 156 

Climping, 48 

Clovelly, 106 

Clun, 135 



INDEX LOCORUM 



219 



Clyffe Pypard, 142 
Cockayne- Hatley, 96 
Cockington, 83 
Codicote, 113 
Cold Ashton, 32, 64 
Coleridge, 3, 50 
Coin Rogers, 44 
Colston Rassett, 122 
Combe Flory, 76 
Compton, 141 
Compton Bassett, 151 
Compton Bishop, 40 
Coombe, 46 
Cornwood, 60 
Cotes-by-Stow, 68 
Cotworth, 66 
Coulton, 96 
Coventry, 50, 170 
Cowden, 120, 157 
Cowley, 44 
Cranborne, 60 
Cranleigh, 138 
Crayke, 144 
Creaton, 128 
Greeting All Saints, 148 
Cressage, 134 
Crich, 180, 181 
Croft, 124 
Cropredy, 132 
Croscombe, 115, 117, 135 
Crowhurst, 138 
Crowle, 176, 177 
Croydon, 100, 118, 168 
Cublington, 195 
Cumnor, 96, 196, 201 

DALLINGTON, 230 
Daresbury, 81, 100 
Dartford, 120 
Dartington, 60, 63 
Dartmouth, 40 
Deane, 120 
Denford, 130 
Dent, 144 
Deptford, 120 
Derby, 200, 201 
Derningham, 70 
Detling, 186, 187 
Devizes, 150 
Didhurst, 64 
Dinder, 89 
Dinton, 96 
Dittisham, 36, 42 
Doncaster, 80 
Dorchester, 106, 107 



Dorney, 98 

Dorton, 98 

Downham St Leonard, 94 

Dray ton, 96 

Durley, 112 

Durnford, 141 

Dursley, no 

Dummer, 52, 64 

Duntsbourne Rous, no 

Durham, 30, 90, 165 



EAKRING, 130 
Earl's Barton, 130 
East Allington, 60, 61 
East Brent, 88, 136 
East Coulston, 195 
East Dean, 141 
East Garston, 96 
East Hagbourne, 31, 33, 57 
East Harling, 190 
East Hendred, 98, 193 
Easthope, 134 
East Ilsley, 199 
East Isley, 96 
East Lockinge, 96 
East Stonham, 148, 152 
East Meon, 44 
Easton-under-Heywood, 133 
Eaton-under-Heywood, 74 
Edington, 144 
Edith Weston, 187 
Edlesborough, 53, 54 
Egglescliffe, 108 
Egloshayle, 38 
Egmanton, 130 
Elkstone, 108 
Elmstone, 44, 64 
Elsworth, 54 
Elworthy, 136 
Epworth, 197 
Eton, 172, 173, 174 
Etwall, 179 
Evenlode, 80 
Ewhurst, 140 
Exeter, 60, 184, 206 

FAIRFORD, 203 
Falmouth, 56 
Farmington, no 
Fawley, no 
Peering, 108 
Felixstowe, 136 
Fen Ditton, 54 
Fenstanton, 66 



220 



INDEX LOCORUM 



Filby, 70 
Fincham, 126 
Finchampstead, 52, 53 
Finedon, 214 
Finsbury, 1 12 
Fordington, 42, 89 
Fotheringay, 71, 72 
Fowey, 102, 103 
Framlingham, 209, 211, 212 
Frampton, 39, 124 
Frampton-on-the-Frome, 42 
Frampton Cotterell, 203 
Fringford, 132 
Friskney, 124 
Frome Vauchurch, 106 
Fulbourne, 52 
Furley, 143 



GARSTANG, 122 
Gatton, 140 
Gazeley, 78 
Giggleswick, 146 
Glapthorne, 128 
Glastonbury, 48, 204 
Gloucester, 64, no, 178, 214 
Godalming, 138 
Goring, 78 
Grafton Flyford, 80 
Granby, 130 
Grantchester, 30, 100 
Graveley, 66 
Great Anwell, 118 
Great Ashfield, 136 
Great Baddow, 108 
Great Blakenham, 136 
Great Coxwell, 96 
Great Easton, 122 
Great Eversden, 100 
Great Milton, 132 
Great Munden, 116 
Great Shelford, 100 
Great Walsingham, 68 
Grendon Underwood, 98 
Guildford, 139 



HADLEIGH, 136 
Halberton, 48, 58 
Halesworth, 134, 136 
Halsham, 144 
Halston, 135 
Hambledon, 64 
Hamdon, 135 
Hampsford, 52 
Hampton Court, 214 



Handborough, 72 
Hanningham, 124 
Hannington, 33, 52, 54, 66, 72 
Harberton, 15, 42 
Harleston, 190 
Harringworth, 130, 132 
Harthill, 195 
Hartland, 105 
Haslingfield, 54 
Haughton-le-Skerne, 108 
Hawkesbury, 44 
Hawkstead, 195 
Hawstead, 76, 78 
Headon, 130 
Heighington, 62 
Helmsley, 30 
Helpringham, 124 
Henham Hall, 130 
Henley-in-Arden, 78 
Hereford, 30, 93, 109, 114 
Heydon, 62 
High Ham, 195 
Hill Farrance, 135 
Hitchin, 66 
Hodnet, 201, 203 
Hollingbourne, 66 
Holne, 60, 65 
Holton, 32 
Holyrood, 167 
Hoole, 122 
Hope-Bowdler, 134 
Hopton-by-Lowestoft, 195 
Hordley, 135 
Horham, 78 
Horsham, 70 
Huish Episcopi, 136 
Hunsdon, 118 
Huntington, 144 
Hurst, 154, 155 
Hutton, 45 



TBSTONE, 53 
1 Ickford. 100 
Icklingham, 94 
Ingoldmells, 68 
Ipplepen, 57, 60 
Iron Acton, 108 
Irstead, 70 
Isleham, 167 
Iver, loo 
Ivinghoe, 77, 98, 190 



ACOBSTOW, 56 



INDEX LOCORUM 



221 



l^ELMARSH, 128 
1\ Kelsale, 136 
Kenley, 135 
Kenton, 55, 58 
Kewstoke, 46 
Kidlington, 132 
Kilnwick, 144 
Kingham, 126 
King's Bromley, 134 
Kingsbury Episcopi, 48 
Kingsclere, no 
King's Cliff, 72 
King's Langley, 116 
King's Sutton, 72 
Kingsthorpe, 128 
Kingston, 100, 203 
Kingston-on-Sea, 140 
Kinoulton, 94 
Kirkby Lonsdale, 141 
Kirkby Underwood, 124 
Kirkheaton, 195 
Kirklington, 144 
Kirk wall, 148 
Knaith, 124 
Knebworth, 89, 116 
Knoddishall, 136 



L ACOCK, 141 
Lakenheath, 78 
Lamberhurst, 141 
Lancaster, 120 
Lancross, 60 
Landbeach, 34, 54 
Landewednack, 102 
Laneast, 54 
Laneham, 130 
Langley Marish, 98 
Lanreath, 102 
Laon, 30 
Lapford, 163 
Launceston, 56 
Launde Abbey, 122 
Lavendon, 98 
Lavenham, 195 
Lawhitton, 102 
Laxfield, 129, 136 
Layer Marney, 62 
Leaden Roothing, 62 
Leconfield, 144 
Leeds, 144 
Leicester, 68, 90, 149 
Leighton Buzzard, 183 
Lenham, 89, 120, 195 
Lewes, 140 
Lillingstone Lovell, 98 



Limpley Stoke, 50 

Lincoln, 94 

Lingfield, 193, 203 

Liskeard, 102 

Llangibby, 126 

Llan-y-Blodwell, 74 

Litcham, 70 

Little Bealings, 136 

Little Cheney, 60 

Little Gidding, 120, 168 

Little Hadham, 118 

Little Horkesly, 195 

Little Shelford, 100 

Little Waldingfield, 136 

Littlebury, 187, 195 

Lockinge, 46 

Loddington, 122 

Loddon, in 

London 

All Hallows, Barking, 124 
All Hallows, Lombard Street, 214 
All Hallows, Staining, 149 
St Benet, Gracechurch Street, 126 
Christ Church, Newgate Street, 126 
St Dunstan's-in-the-West, 100 
St Giles, Cripplegate, 126 
St Helen's, Bishopsgate, 126 
St James, Piccadilly, 30 
St Katherine, Aldgate, 1 50 
St Katherine Cree, 126 
St Margaret, Southwark, 206 
St Martin's-in-the-Fields, 90 
St Mary-at-Hill, 20, 33, 206 
St Mary, Whitechapel, 30 
St Matthew, Friday Street, 89 
St Michael's, College Hill, 195 
St Michael's, Cornhill, 22, 200 
St Mildred, Bread Street, 126 
St Olave, Hart Street, 126 
St Peter Cheap, 198, 206, 208 
St Stephen's, Walbrook, 215 

Longcot, 96 

Long Crendon, 195 

Long Marston, 116 

Long Preston, 144 

Long Sutton, 74 

Long Whatton, 122 

Lower Gravenhurst, 52 

Lower Halstead, 120, 199 

Lower Winchendon, 98 

Loxton, 43, 46 

Luccombe, 135 

Ludlow, 149 

Lutley, 80 

Lutter worth, 25, 33, 66, 78 

Lutton, 124 



222 



INDEX LOCORUM 



Lydiard St Laurence, 135 
Lyford, 96 

Lyme Regis, 106, 195 
Lynn, 94, 143, 211, 214 



MAISEY-HAMPTON, 193 
Maismore, no 
Malmesbury, 204 
Manchester, 214 
Marholm, 128 
Mar ham, 102 
Markham Clinton, 130 
Marr, 143 

Marrick Priory, 144 
Mars ton, 54 
Martindale, 141 
Marton, 100 
Matching, 108 
Mawgan-in-Pyder, 102 
Mayfield, 134, 199 
Meare, 48 

Mellor, 17, 24, 26, 54, 56 
Merton, 101, 132 
Micheldean, 64 
Mickleover, 180, 181 
Midhurst, 78 
Middle Claydon, 98 
Middle Littleton, 80 
Middleton, 165 
Middleton Cheney, 72 
Middleton Scriven, 74 
Milton Abbas, 60 
Minstead, 94 
Minsterley, 135 
Monkleigh, 60 
Monks Eleigh, 78 
Monk Sherbourne, 112 
Monksilver, 73, 76, 162, 163, 184 
Monk Soham, 136 
Monkton, 120 
Monkton Deverill, 143 
Monkton Farleigh, 141 
Morden, 94 
Mortlake, 90 
Morton Hampstead, 54 
Mottiston, 112 
Much Lilley, 66 
Muston, 122 

NAILSEA, 32 
Nantvvich, 19, 28, 38 
Nassington, 128 
Naunton, 44 
Neatishead, 70 



Necton, 126 

Netherbury, 106 

Newbury, 96 

Newchurch, 1 14 

Newdigate, 140 

Newport, 87, 114, 195 

Newstead, 167 

New-timber, 140 

Newton, 100 

Newton Abbot, 168 

Newton St Cyres, 94 

Newton St Petrock, 60 

New Walsingham, 70 

North Badderley, 112 

North Cerney, 44 

North Luffenham, 132 

North Mimms, 116 

North Newton, 136 

North Petherton, 76 

North Walsham, 70 

Northampton, 130, 203 

Northleach, 44 

Northwood, 114 

Norton, 178 

Norwich, 30, 70, 165, 167, 193, 212, 214 

Nutley, 138 



OCCOLD, 136 
Odell, 96, 148 
Odiham, no 
Oddington, 108 
Okeford Fitzpaine, 42, 132 
Old Radnor, 205, 207, 210 
Old Shoreham, 188 
Onibury, 74 
Orton Waterville, 118 
Oswaldkirk, 144 
Osvvestry, 135 

Otford, 14, 112, 113, 1 68, 173, 214 
Ottery St Mary, 184 
Ottrington, 181 
Oundle, 128, 166 
Over, 79 
Overbury, 80 
Oxburgh, 1 68 
Oxford, 1 68, 173 

Oxford, Magdalen College, 21, 30, 44, 
46 



PAIGNTON, 40 
Pangbourne, 96 
Partney, 68 
Patrington, 144 
Paull, 181 



INDEX LOCORUM 



223 



Paulshot, 142 
Peakirk, 187, 188 
Peatling Magna, 122 
Perugia, 30 
Peterborough, 167 
Petton, 134, 135 
Pilton, 13, 135, 154 
Pinhoe, 60 
Pitchford, 135 
Pitstone, 96 
Pleasley, 152 
Plympton, 131 
Pocklington, 181 
Polebrook, 128 
Pomeroy, 105 
Porthilly, 56 
Portisham, 106 
Portsmouth, 112, 213 
Poynings, 146 
Prestbury, 92, 100, 150 
Princes Risborough, 100 
Puttenham, 116, 118 
Puxton, 157, 158 
Pytchley, 128 



QUAINTON, 195 
Quatford, 74 

Quatt, 134 
Queen's Camel, 76 



RADCLIFFE, 120 
Radnage, 100 
Rampton, 100 
Ramsey, 191, 193 
Ranvvorth, 126, 187, 188, 189 
Rattlesden, 136 
Ravenstone, 100 

Redenhall, 168, 170, 182, 183, 184 
Ripon, 50, 144 
Rickling, 62 
Rodborough, no 
Rodney Stoke, 123, 135 
Ronaldkirk, 94 
Rossington, 80 
Rotherfield, 140 
Rotherham, 144 
Rothersthorpe, 89, 128 
Rous, 181 
Royston, 66 
Rumburgh, 136 
Ruscombe, 96 
Rushden, 72 
Rye, 78 



STALBANS, 154, 167 
St Asaph, 90 
St Cuby, 56 
St Gwinear, 56 
St Ive, 102 
St Ives, 33, 50, 56 
St John-in-the-Vale, 104 
St Kew, 102 
St Leonard, 14 
St Lo, 30 
St Mellion, 102 
St My lor, 102 
St Nicholas-at-Wade, 120 
St Paul's, 168, 169 
St Ruan-Langhorne, 56 
St Sampson, 56 
St Teath, 102 
St Winnow, 102 
Salford Prior, 199 
Salisbury, 20, 89, 90-92 
Sail, 94 

Saltfleetby All Saints, 124 
Sandon, 116 
Savoy Chapel, 152 
Smoley, 105 
Saxelby, 68 
Seaming, 70 
Scole, 193 
Seal, 120, 150 
Seiworthy, 76 
Sefton, 95, 122 
Sevenoaks, 120 
Shabbington, 98 
Shalford, 195 
Shelston, 52 
Shepsted, 122 
Shepton Mallet, 7, 46 
Shawbury, 134 
Sherborne St John, 202, 3 
Shipdham, 187, 189, 190 
Shipton, 134 
Shorwell, 41, 44, 112 
Shotwick, 102 
Shrewsbury, 36, 198 
Siddington, 100 
Silchester, no 
Silk Willoughby, 124 
Skidbrook, 109, 124 
Snettisham, 70 
Somerton, 136 
Sopley, no 

South Burlingham, 181 
South Creyke, 70 
South Littleton, 80 
South Molton, 40 
South Petherton, 102 



22 4 



INDEX LOCORUM 



South Tawton, 106 

Southam, 70 

Southampton, 152, 182, 188 

Southwell, 1 66, 170, 214 

South wick, 140 

Southwold, 25, 32, 76 

Sparham, 50 

Spondon, 180, 181 

Stadhampton, 132 

Stafford House, 214 

Standish, 120 

Stanford, 214 

Stanstead Abbotts, 116 

Stanton, 52, 62 

Stantonbury, 98 

Staunton, 29, 32, 42, 64 

Steeple Clayden, 98 

Steventon, 96 

Stockleigh, 105 

Stogumber, 48 

Stoke d'Abernon, 137, 138, 156, 157, 

184 

Stoke Bliss, 116, 143 
Stoke Orchard, no 
Stoke St Gregory, 125, 136 
Stondon Massey, 108 
Stonegrave, 144 
Stonham Aspall, 136 
Stonisfield, 132 
Strasburg, 30 

Stratford-sub-Castle, 131, 141 
Stratton, 102 
Stratton Audley, 132 
Strelley, 72 
Suckley, 143 
Sudbury, 76 
Sutcombe, 115 
Sutton, 134, 198 
Sutton-at-Hone, 66 
Sutton-by-Uover, 120 
Swanbourne, 195 
Swarby, 89 
Swaton, 195 
Swimbridge, 42, 163 
Syerston, 130 



TACOLNESTON, 126 
Taddington, 181 
Tadley, 112 
Tanson, 128 
Tasley, 134 
Tattershall, 68 
Taunton, 107, 136 
Tawstock, 199 
Taynton, 64, no 



Teddington, 143 
Teigh, 132 
Tewkesbury, 60, 21 
Teynham, 120 
Thaxted, 108 
Thornaby, 94, 99 
Thornbury, 44 
Thornham, 126 
Thorpe Langton, 68 
Thurlestone, 60 
Tibenham, 126 
Tintinhull, 20, 135 
Todbere, 108 
Tong, 134 
Tor Bryan, 58 
Tor Mahon 60 
Tortington, 140 
Totnes, 40 
Towcester, 128, 203 
Towersey, 98 
Treborough, 76 
Tredington, 113 
Trull, 74, 75 
Trumpington, 100 
Truro, 38 

Tuddenham St Martin, 78 
Tugby, 68 
Tuttington, 126 
Twineham, 140 
Twyford, 98 



[ TBLEY, 136 
\^J Uffingham, 132 
Upchurch, 120 
Upper Clatford, 112 
Upper Winchendon, 52, 53 
Upton, 128 
Utterby, 124 



7ITRE, 30 



YV/ALBERSWICK, 78 
W Walton-le-Dale, 122 
Walkington, 144 
Walpole St Andrew, 21, 32 
Walsoken, 181 
Waltham St Lawrence, 96 
Wangford, 138 
Warburton, 100 
Wargrave, 96 
Warmington, 72, 128 
Water Eaton, 132 




Church Art in England 

A Series of Books edited by 

FRANCIS BOND, M.A., F.G.S., Hon. A.R.I.B.A. 



2,3 
4, 5 

6,7 

8 

9 
10 

ii 

12 



Now Ready 
SCREENS AND GALLERIES IN ENGLISH CHURCHES. By FRANCIS 

BOND - 

FONTS AND FONT COVERS. By FRANCIS BOND - 
WOOD CARVINGS IN ENGLISH CHURCHES. By FRANCIS BOND 

I. Misericords 

II. Stalls and Tabernacle Work, Bishops' Thrones, and 

Chancel Chairs - 

WESTMINSTER ABBEY. By FRANCIS BOND 
VISITORS' GUIDE TO WESTMINSTER ABBEY. By FRANCIS BOND 
DEDICATIONS AND PATRON SAINTS OF ENGLISH CHURCHES. 

By FRANCIS BOND 

CHURCH BELLS OF ENGLAND. By H. B. WALTERS 
INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH CHURCH ARCHITECTURE. By 

FRANCIS BOND 
PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS IN ENGLISH CHURCHES. By 

Rev. Dr Cox. 

Forthcoming 

ENGLISH CHURCH PLATE. By Rev. J. T. EVANS 
CHURCH CHESTS, DOORS, ETC. By P. M. JOHNSTON 
THE ENGLISH CHANCEL. By FRANCIS BOND - 
TOMBS AND MONUMENTS IN ENGLISH CHURCHES. By F. E. 
HOWARD 

Now Ready, uniform with the above 

MILITARY ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND DURING THE MIDDLE 

AGES. By A. HAMILTON THOMSON 13 

HUMPHREY MILFORD, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 
LONDON, NEW YORK, TORONTO, MELBOURNE, & BOMBAY 



16 
16 
16 

16 



BY FRANCIS BOND 



SCREENS AND GALLERIES IN 
ENGLISH CHURCHES 

Demy 8vo, containing 204 pages, with 152 Illustrations reproduced 

from Photographs and Drawings. Strongly bound in cloth. Price 

6s. net ($2.40). 




U 



SOME PRESS NOTICES 

New York Nation. " It is not easy to praise too highly the simple and effective 
presentation of the subject and the interest of the book to all persons who care for 
ecclesiology or for decorative art." 

Daily Graphic. " Mr Bond has produced a work on our ecclesiastical screens 
and galleries which, like his larger work on the ' Gothic Architecture of England,' is 




Screen in Holbeton Church 



in the first degree masterly. His knowledge of his subject, exact and comprehensive, 
is compressed into a minimum amount of space, and illustrated by a series of photo- 
graphs and measured drawings which render the work of permanent value." 

Bulletin Monumental. "Apres avoir analyse, aussi exactement que possible, 
1'interessant etude de M. Bond, nous devons le feliciter de nous avoir donne ce 
complement si utile a son grand ouvrage." 

3 



BY FRANCIS BOND 



FONTS & FONT COVERS 

Demy 8vo, containing 364 pages, with 426 Illustrations reproduced 

from Photographs and Measured Drawings. Strongly bound in 

cloth. Price I2s. net ($4.80). 





PRESS NOTICE 

Church Qtiarterly Review. "It is most delightful, not only to indulge in a 
serious perusal of this volume, but to turn over its pages again and again, always sure 
to find within half a minute some beautiful illustration or some illuminating remark." 




Font at Bodmin 



BY FRANCIS BOND 



Wood Carvings in English Churches 

I. Misericords 

Demy 8vo, containing 257 pages, with 241 Illustrations reproduced 

from Photographs and Measured Drawings. Strongly bound in 

cloth. Price 73. 6d. net ($3.00). 




SOME PRESS NOTICES 

New York Herald. " One of the quaintest, most fascinating, and at the rame 
time most learned volumes that a reader would happen upon in a lifetime." 

Antiquary. "An authoritative, and at the same time delightful and instructive 
volume." 

Church Times. "An indispensable guide to the subject. The illustrations are 
worthy of all praise." 

Yorkshire Post. "Another of the valuable series of monographs on Church Art 
in England, and the most entertaining of all." 




Misericord at Worcester 




Misericord at Beverley Minster 



Liverpool Courier." Another of the admirably written and illustrated art hand- 
books for which the author is famous." 

Birmingham Post." This well illustrated volume is not only a valuable technical 
monograph, but also an important contribution to the history of social life and thought 
in the Middle Ages. Mr Bond's treatment of the subject is exceptionally charming 
and successful." 

Outlook." Many there must be to whom Mr Bond's new book will be welcome. 
Into all the details of this varied and most puzzling subject he goes with thoroughness 
and a pleasant humour. The bibliography and indices, as in all the volumes in this 
series, are admirable." 

1 



BY FRANCIS BOND 

Wood Carvings in English Churches 

II. Stalls and Tabernacle Work, Bishops' 
Thrones, and Chancel Chairs 

Demy 8vo, containing 154 pages, with 124 Illustrations reproduced 

from Photographs and Measured Drawings. Strongly bound in 

cloth. Price 6s. net ($2.40). 




PRESS NOTICE 

La Chronique des Arts et de la Ciiriositt. " Une illustration copieuse etablie avec 
des soins tout documentaires ; des index ; une table par ordre chronologique, une 
autre par noms des lieux, viennent faciliter les recherches et permettre au lecteur de 
tirer benefice des vastes resources d'une erudition informee et sure." 



BY FRANCIS BOND 



WESTMINSTER ABBEY 

Demy 8vo, containing 348 pages, with 270 Illustrations reproduced 

from Photographs and Measured Drawings. Strongly bound in 

cloth. Price los. net ($4.00). 




Fan Vault of Henry VII.'s Chapel in Westminster Abbey 
9 



VISITORS' GUIDE TO WESTMINSTER ABBEY 

93 pages of text, abridged from the larger work on "Westminster Abbey." 

Fcap 8vo, with 15 Plans and Drawings and 32 Photographic Illustrations. 

Price is. net (40 c.). 




Chapter House at Westminster 
10 



BY FRANCIS BOND 

Dedications and Patron Saints of English 
Churches. Calendars, Ecclesiastical 
Symbolism, Saints and their Emblems 

Demy 8vo, containing 359 pages, with 252 Illustrations. 
Strongly bound in cloth. Price 73. 6d. net ($3.00). 



THE main object of the book is to inquire into the dedi- 
cations of the English churches, and to show the curious 
ways which led to the popularity, or it may be the 
unpopularity, of the various saints. To aid in the identi- 
fication of the saints represented in mediaeval art very numerous 
illustrations have been reproduced from stained glass, statuary 
in wood, stone, and alabaster, ivories, brasses, bench ends, 
wall paintings, illuminated manuscripts, and painted rood- 
screens. At the end will be found an alphabetical list, 
with dates and emblems, of the saints commemorated in 
English dedications, and another alphabetical list of the 
emblems of the saints ; these two lists will be found of service 
in visiting the picture galleries and stained glass of England 
and the Continent. 



SOME PRESS NOTICES 

Morning Post. " Mr Bond's indefatigable industry and gift of flair in ecclesi- 
astical matters have found a wide scope in this fascinating field ; we have had as 
much pleasure in reading it as he had in writing it. It is the work of a true 
enthusiast, and will greatly help the diffusion of a keener and more intelligent 
interest in the visible and invisible antiquities of our innumerable ancient churches." 

Yorkshire Observer. "Out of the fulness of his learning the writer has made 
this volume a most curious revelation of the wit, wisdom, superstition and romance of 
the Middle Ages." 

7'iies Literary Supplement. " Mr Bond's previous works have dealt with 
English ecclesiastical architecture and carving, with an elaboration of illustration and 
description for which students a century hence will be profoundly grateful. Readers 
of the present book should be many, for it contains much that is delightful." 

ii 



BY H. B. WALTERS 



Church Bells of England 

Demy 8vo, containing 420 pages, with 170 Illustrations 

reproduced from Photographs and Drawings. Strongly 

bound in cloth. Price 7s. 6d. net ($3.00). 

Times. "It is by far the most complete work or its kind in existence and the 
most accurate ... a treatise as readable as it is erudite." 









12 



Uniform with the preceding Volumes of the Rnglish Church Art Series 

Military Architecture in England 
During the Middle Ages 

By A. Hamilton Thomson, M.A., F.S.A. 

Demy 8vo, containing- 406 pages, with 200 Illustrations reproduced 

from Photographs, Drawings, and Plans. Strongly bound in cloth. 

Price ys. 6d. net ($3.00). 




Bodiam : North Front and Gatehouse 



SOME PRESS NOTICES 

Church Times. " Not only those who are specially interested in military archi- 
tecture, but also everyone who desires, on visiting an ancient castle, to view it with 
intelligent appreciation, must needs add this work to his library." 

Guardian. " This volume at once steps into the position of a classic ; it will be 
long before it is superseded." 

English Historical Review. "This monograph is compressed into about four 
hundred pages, and copiously illustrated, yet it contains a wealth of detail that could 
easily have been expanded into a much longer work. . . . Its author is not writing a 
guide to castles, but a history of military architecture ; yet the work might usefully be 
taken as a guide to many of the castles described in it." 

Country Life. "The book could scarcely be bettered as a concise survey of a 
difficult and complex subject." 

Journal des Savants. " Le livre de M. Thompson sera . . . le bienvenu. II 
le sera d'autant plus qu'il donne un aper9u tres complet des transformations de 1'archi- 
tecture militaire outre-Manche depuis les temps les plus anciens. . . . Ce n'est pas 
seulement au point de vue anglais, c'est egalement a notre point de vue fran9ais que 
ce livre offre un reel interet." 

13 



Two Volumes, Demy Quarto; 1000 Pages; 1400 Illustrations 
Price Two Guineas net ($16.75). 



An Introduction to 
English Church Architecture 

From the Eleventh to the Sixteenth Century 
By FRANCIS BOND 



SOME PRESS NOTICES 

Athene in. "These volumes form a worthy sequel to the important work on 
'Gothic Architecture in England,' l>y the same author, published in 1905. They 
represent a vast amount of orderly labour, and show an astonishingly wide grasp 
of a great subject. It is a big undertaking ; 1000 quarto pages, with 1400 illus- 
trations. One of the pleasant features of the work is the sparing use of exceptional 
or technical terms, the exact meaning of which is grasped as a rule only by a 
professed architect. For the use of the unlearned, the first volume opens with a 
tersely- written glossary of terms, and this is followed by a most useful explanatory 
list of French words and phrases of an architectural character. But for the most 
part there is a breezy freshness about Mr Bond's phrases which at once rivets the 
attention." 

Westminster Gazette. "We know Mr Bond as a careful student, of sound 
scholarship, but if we had no other evidence, this ' Introduction ' of his would mark 
him also as a writer of imagination who has not allowed the infinite detail of his 
subject to obscure his sight of the building. * It is good for those who are to be 
introduced to mediaeval church architecture,' he writes in his preface, 'to know not 
only how a church was built, but why it was built, who built it, who served in it, 
who worshipped in it, and what manner of worship was theirs Ancient or Modern.' 
Already we are beginning to regard such an attitude as perfectly natural, forgetting 
that the text-books of the last century took no more account of the human impulse 
than a treatise on trigonometry takes of the private life of Euclid. . . . The book 
is magnificently illustrated." 

Yorkshire Observer. "Mr Bond shows, step by step, how the church varied 
from age to age, structure following need, so that an ancient parish church as we 
see it now is not a mere bit of ingenious or clumsy designing, plain or beautiful by 
caprice, but a living organism reflecting the lives, the faith, and indeed the material 
fortunes of the people who built and used it. It is in the realisation of this soul of a 
building more than in anything else that the difference lies between the old guide- 
book antiquarianism and the new archaeology which Mr Bond represents. ... If 
it were not so easy and lucid to read, one might compare it with Darwin's ' Origin 
of Species.' " 

Connoisseur. "An unrivalled record of English ecclesiastical architecture. It 
is difficult to speak in too high praise of the work. Mr Bond has explored his subject 
from end to end." 

14 



SOME PRESS NOTICES (continued} 

Western Mail. "Splendidly bound and well printed, with a glossary of terms 
which will prove most useful to the lay reader, it is a work of the greatest value to 
all who are in any way interested in the construction, details, and uses of our ancient 
and beautiful churches." 

Antiquary. "The student or the general reader who wishes to have an 
intelligent grasp of principles and of their illustration and exemplification in the 




Vault of Choir of Gloucester Cathedral 

details of construction has here provided for him an ideal book. Mr Bond's pages 
are likely, however, to fascinate the expert as well as the beginner. . . . For this 
valuable book the author will receive the grateful thanks of students, not only those 
of the present time but those of many a day to come. . . . Every chapter and every 
section is lavishly illustrated, not at random, but by a carefully chosen set of examples 
closely related to the text ; the wealth of illustration is so great that a full half of 
the thousand pages of the two volumes is occupied by pictures." 



IN PREPARATION 
Uniform with the above Volumes of the English Church Art Series 

ENGLISH CHURCH PLATE 

By Rev. J. T. EVANS, M.A. 

Editor of " Church Plate of Gloucestershire, Cardiganshire, Pembroke," etc. 



CHURCH CHESTS, DOORS, COLLECTING AND 
POOR BOXES, PRESSES, ETC. 

By PHILIP MAINWARING JOHNSTON 
F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

Author of numerous Papers in the " Surrey and Sussex Archaeological Collections," 
and in the " Archaeological Journal." 

THE ENGLISH CHANCEL 

The Altar, Reredos, Communion Table, Altar 
Rails, Piscina, Sedilia, Easter Sepulchre, etc. 

By FRANCIS BOND 

Author of" English Church Architecture," etc. 



TOMBS AND MONUMENTS IN 
ENGLISH CHURCHES 

By F. E. HOWARD 

Author of papers on " Fan Vaulting," " English Chantry Chapels," 
" Devon Churches," etc. 



OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

16 



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